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Psyc100-Ch8 - Memory.docx

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PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer- Hague

Psychology 100 Chapter 8: Memory Memory: processes that allow us to encode (record), store, and later retrieve experiences and information.  Encoding: getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes.  Storage: retaining information over time.  Retrieval: processes that access stored information Three-Stage Model (p.253) A) Sensory Memory Briefly holds incoming sensory information  Large capacity  Gives us a chance to decide what is important  Extraneous information is largely lost B) Working/Short-Term Memory Short-Term: Temporary holds limited amount of information  Memory codes (mental representations of information/stimulus) are formed o visual codes, phonological codes, semantic codes, motor codes  Capacity is limited (7+/- 2), so use chunking (combining individual items into larger units of meaning eg. RCMP)  Duration is limited, so rehearsal is required (eg. repeating a phone number in your head) Working Memory: limited-capacity system that temporarily stores and processes information  Not a passive storage space (short-term), working memory is a mental workspace that stores information, actively manipulates it and support other cognitive functions such as problem solving and planning Components of Working Memory 1. Phonological Loop: briefly stores mental representation of sounds. Is active when you hear a spoken word or when you read a word in your head. 2. Visuospatial sketchpad: stores visual and spatial information, eg forming someone’s face or spatial layout of your room. 3. Episodic Buffer: where info from long-term memory and from phono/visuo subsystems can be integrated, manipulated and made available for conscious awareness (eg calculation p.255) 4. Central Executive: directs overall action. (eg calculation: plans and controls sequence of actions that need to be performed, divides and allocates attention to other subsystems and integrates information within the episodic buffer) C) Long Term Memory Vast library of more durable stored memories  Unlimited capacity and can endure for up to a lifetime  Serial position effect: the ability to recall an item is influenced by the item’s position in a series (U-shaped pattern, remember beginning and end of a list) E NCODING : E NTERING INFORMATION ( P .257) Effortful vs Automatic Processing  Effortful processing: encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention (eg study exam)  Automatic processing: encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention Types of encoding 1. Structural encoding: notice how the word looks 2. Phonological encoding: how the word sounds 3. Semantic encoding: what the word means Effectiveness depends on levels of processing: More deeply processed information is remembered better (semantically processed is remembered better) Encoding Strategies (p.258)  Rehearsal o Maintenance rehearsal: simple, rote repetition (eg repeating phone number) o Elaborative rehearsal: involves focusing on the meaning of information (organizing notes)  Hierarchies and Chunking o Hierarchy: associations between concepts o Chunking: combining individual items into larger units of meaning  Visual Imagery o Dual coding theory: encoding info use both verbal and visual codes enhances memory because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall o Method of loci: memory aid that associates information with mental images of physical locations  Mnemonic devices o A memory aid. Eg chunking, visual imagery, acronyms, rhyming Schema: mental framework, organized pattern of thought, about aspect of the world  Generalized ideas about how things work and help organize and encode details as a meaningful pattern and thus remember more.  New events are often encoded according to existing schema  Acquiring expertise, we develop schemas that allow us to encode more efficiently , eg chess player, musicians S TORAGE : R ETAINING I NFORMATION ( P.262) Memory as networks Associative network (cognitive): a massive network of associated ideas and concepts (p.263)  View long-term memory as a network of associated nodes, with each node representing a concept or unit of information Neural Network (biological): memory is a unique pattern of interconnected and simultaneously active nodes  Propose that each piece of information in memory is represented not by a single node but by multiple nodes distributed throughout the brain. Each memory is represented by a unique pattern of simultaneously activated nodes. Types of Long-Term Memory (p.264)  Declarative memory: factual knowledge o Episodic memory: knowledge concerning personal experiences o Semantic memory: general facts about the world, language, words, concepts  Procedural memory: reflected in skills and actions o Eg riding a bike  Explicit memory: conscious/intentional memory retrieval. o Recognition: target stimuli are provided. Eg eyewitness picking the suspect o Recall: must retrieve stimuli on our own. Eg list recall tests  Implicit memory: when memory influences our behavior without conscious awareness o Eg handshake with needl
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