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Psyc100-Ch7 - Learning.docx

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PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer- Hague

Psychology 100 Chapter 7: Learning – Role of Experience Learning: process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism’s behaviour or capabilities  Experience can provide immediate knowledge, but learning is measured by changes in performance  Environment influences adaptation in two major ways: o species adaptation: occur through natural-selection o Personal adaptation: occurs through learning Habituation: decrease in the strength of a response to a repeated stimulus (p.212)  Eg loud noise. Overtime, startle response diminishes and eventually ignore  Adaptive function. If respond too much, will become exhausted. If learn to not to respond to uneventful stimuli, can conserve energy and attend to other stimuli.  Learning trial: each pairing of CS with UCR  One-trial learning: one time pairing  Extinction trial: occurrence of CS without UCS C LASSICAL C ONDITIONING ( P .213) Learn to associate two stimuli, such that one stimuli comes to elicit a response that originally was elicited only by the other stimuli  Was discovered in the late 1860’s by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)  Studying salivary responses in digestion in dogs  Fed dogs meat to stimulate saliva  Noticed that the dogs would start to salivate when they saw them, the dish, the food, etc. Before Conditioning: UCS  UCR Food  Dog salivates Bell Rings  No Saliva Response  Food is unconditioned stimulus (UCS): stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without prior learning  Salvation is unconditioned response (UCR): response that is elicited by a stimulus without prior learning  Tone is neutral stimulus: does not elicit any response During Conditioning: Bell Rings+ Food  Dog salivates CS + UCS = UCR After Conditioning: CS  CR Bell Rings  Dog salivates  Tone is Conditioned stimulus (CS): through association with UCS (food), now elicit a CR similar to UCR  Salivation to tone is now conditioned response (CR), response from conditioned stimulus (bell) Strongest when: 1. Repeated pairings of CS – UCS pairings (food and bell) 2. UCS is more intense (more food, negative events) 3. Sequence of CS-UCS involves forward pairing (Bell then food) 4. Time interval between CS-UCS is short (few seconds) Negative Events: When the UCS is aversive, often only one pairing is required for conditioning to occur  Eg traumatic car accident cause car phobia Extinction: If CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of the UCS, the CR will waken and eventually disappear. Spontaneous Recovery: the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR after a rest period and without new learning trial Stimulus Generalization: Any stimulus similar to the initial CS will elicit a response.  Eg Fear of cars  Adaptive value. Eg animals hearing rustling in bushes Discrimination : Response occurs to one CS but not others  Eg Fear of cars, but not bikes, trains, buses  Adaptive value eg animal not alarmed to every sound Higher-order Conditioning: neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS  Produces weaker CR and extinguishes more rapidly than original CR  Eg. Yellow Card + Tone  Salivation Application in real life (p.217) Acquiring and Overcoming fear a) John B. Watson, case of little Albert  Researchers paired a furry white rat (neutral) with a loud bang (UCS)  Rat becomes CS, Little Albert became fearful of the rat (CR)  Fear generalized to other furry stimuli, eg santa beard  Response persisted for days b) Mary Cover Jones, treated a boy named Peter who had a strong fear for rabbits  Gradually extinguished fear through exposure therapies: patient is exposed to stimulus that arouse an anxiety response without presence of UCS, allowing extinction to occur  Counterconditioning: CS is paired with a new, pleasurable UCS, conditioning a positive response to the CS. E.g. pairing rabbit with cookies and candies. Attraction and Aversion a) CC can be used to attract people to a certain object or product o Eg sexy garment become CS for arousal, neutral become CS after paired with arousing UCS b) Can also decrease arousal and attraction to stimuli through Aversion therapy: creates a repulsion to a stimuli by pairing with noxious UCS o Eg nausea inducing drugs in alcohol Sickness and Health a) Allergic Reactions – pairing neutral stimulus (odor) with substances that normally trigger allergic reaction, the odor can become a CS that elicits a similar allergic response o Eg real gold fish and plastic gold fish patient b) Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting (ANV) – chemotherapy cause nausea, so patients may become nauseated and may vomit anywhere from minutes to hours before a treatment session c) Immune System – can be CC too, increase or decreasing immune responses. a. Eg. Rates drank sweetened water (neutral) paired with injection of a drug that suppresses immune activity (UCR), the sweetened water becomes a CS that suppresses immune activity. O PERANT C ONDITIONING : LEARNING THROUGH CONSQUENCES Type of learning in which behavior is influenced by consequences that follows  Instead of elicited responses (automatically triggered), OC is emitted response (voluntary)  Instrumental learning: with trial and error, gradually eliminate fail responses and perform actions that works  Law of effect: (p.220) o Behaviour followed by pleasurable consequences will me more likely to occur o Behaviour followed by negative consequences will be less likely to occur  Behaviour is complex and not reflexive  Shaping: Reinforcing successive “baby steps” towards a main goal or final response  Chaining: Development of a sequence of responses by reinforcing each response with opportunity to perform the next response o Eg Rat learns how to ring a bell to get a light to turn on, to get food. Usually begins with final response and works backwards.  Operant Generalization: operant response to a new situation or stimulus similar to the original one elicits same response o Eg Dog Sits when other commands too. Child avoid all hot stovetop  Operant Discrimination: Operant response occurs only to one stimulus, not others o Eg child only misbehave infront of dad not mom, only board bus with specific symbols  Discriminative stimulus: signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences (light on/off, bus symbol)  Stimulus Control: behaviour that is influenced by a discriminative stimulus (eg sight of police car) Reinforcement (p.223): response is strengthened (increase in frequency) by an outcome that follows  Reinforcer: outcome/stimuli that increase in frequency (eg food pellet) Positive Reinforcement: when a response is strengthened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus. o Eg. Rat receives food (positive reinforcer) after pressing lever. o Food, drink, attention, praise, money o Primary reinforcer: stimuli naturally pleasing (eg food, water, affection) o Secondary reinforcer: only finds pleasing once it is associated with the primary reinforcer (money) Negative Reinforcement: when a response is strengthened by the subsequent removal of a stimulus. o Eg. Taking aspirin remove headache - Stimuli that is removed (headache) is a “negative reinforcer” Operant extinction : weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer reinforced  Eg if pressing food don’t give food, rat will stop eventually  Degree to which nonreinforced responses persist is called resistance to extinction.  If stop quickly (low resistance) or if they keep occurring (high resistance).  Eg ignore kid when they nag because they crave attention Punishment (p.225) : response is weakened by outcomes that follow  Punisher: outcome (eg electric shock) Aversive Punishment (PositivePunishment): response is weakened by a subsequent presentation of a stimulus o spanking– positive punisher Response Cost (Negative Punishment): response is weakened by a subsequent removal of a stimulus o Grounding, loss of privileges, fines – negative punisher Why Doesn’t Punishment Work? 1. Administered inappropriately or mindlessly 2. Recipient responds with anxiety, fear, rage 3. Effects are temporary and depend on presence of punisher 4. Most misbehaviour can’t be punished immediately 5. Punishment conveys little information 6. Punishment might be reinforcing, acting as attention Schedules of Reinforcement (p.229) Continuous reinforcement: reinfo
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