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Psyc100-Ch11 - Motivation &Emotion.docx

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PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer- Hague

Psychology 100 Chapter 11 – Part1: Motivation O RGINS OF M OTIVATION Motivation: process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior. A) Instincts  inherited characteristics, common to all members of a species  automatically produce a particular response to a particular stimulus B) Maintenance of homeostasis (p.364)  Homeostasis: a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain o Eg body shiver to generate warmth in the cold  Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce Drives – states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce tension o Eg hunger, thirst arise from tissue deficits ( lack of food and water) C) Approach and Avoidance Motivation: the BAS and BIS  Behavioural activation system (BAS) – stimulated by signals of potential reward and positive need gratification o Produce emotions of hope, elation and happiness, Prefer change and novelty  Behavioural inhibition system (BIS) – responds to stimuli that signal potential pain, nonreinforcement, and punishment o Produce fear, terror, escape and avoidance behaviors, preference for the familiar D) Cognitive processes (p.365)  Incentives: environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal o Eg anticipating a good grade can be an incentive for studying o Eg Food can be incentive for someone who is hungry  Expectancy X Value theory: goal-directed behavior is jointly determined by the strength of the person’s expectation that a behavior will lead to a goal and by the incentive value the individual places on that goal.  Motivation = expectancy X incentive value o Eg James study hard because he believe the more he study, the more likely it is he will get an A(expectancy) , and he strongly desires an A (incentive).  intrinsic motivation: performing an activity for its own sake  extrinsic motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment o eg study for good grade (extrinsic), study to learn (intrinsic) E) Psychodynamic and Humanistic Views (p.366) Self-determination theory – three fundamental psychological needs:  Competence: need to master new challenges to perfect skills  Autonomy: attempt to achieve greater freedom and self-control  Relatedness: desire to form meaningful bonds with others Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs:  key human motive: our striving for personal growth  Need hierarchy: contains deficiency needs (physical and social survival) and growth needs.  Self-actualization: need to fulfill our potential, the ultimate human motive, to perfect ourselves mentally, artistically, emotionally and socially. H UNGER AND W EIGHT R EGULATION Physiology of Hunger (p.367)  Metabolism: body’s rate of energy utilization  Set points: Biological standard for the regulation of body weight o If we overeat/undereat, homeostatic mechanisms alter our energy utilization and hunger so as to return us close to our original weight Signals: eating and stopping eating  L. Washburn swallowed a balloon that was hooked up to an amplifying device to record stomach contractions  Turns out stomach’s contractions did correspond with feelings of hunger.  But research shows hunger does not depend on an empty stomach. People with stomachs surgically removed continue to feel hungry, proving other signals must help trigger hunger.  Reduction in supply of glucose (simple sugar that is the body’s major source of immediately usable fuel) available to cells provide one signal that helps initiate hunger.  cholecystokinin (CKK) – a peptide (hormone) that helps produce satiety. They are released into the bloodstream and help signal the brain to stop eating. Signals that regulate general appetite and weight  Leptin: hormone secreted by fat cells  Fat cells release leptin, which acts as a long-term signal that helps regulate appetite  Eg Mutated rat lack leptin and overeat and became obese Brain Mechanisms  Lateral hypothalamus: “hunger-on” center. Stimulation causes eating and destroying cause it to starve.  Ventromedial hypothalamus: “hunger-off” center. Stimulation causes hungry rat to stop eating, damaging would produce a constantly eating rat.  Paraventricular nucleus: cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite Psychological Aspects of Hunger (p.370)  Eating is positively reinforced by good taste and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction.  Beliefs: attitudes, habits, and psychological needs also regulate food intake. (eg don’t leave unfinished food)  Social pressure: women believe unrealistic thinness = attractive  Women overestimated how thin they need to be to conform to men’s preferences, whereas men overestimated how bulky they should be to conform to women’s preference  Women perceive their body shape as heavier than ideal, whereas men view their body shape as close to ideal  Men’s satisfaction with their bodies decreases when they are exposed to a series of advertisements showing muscular males Environmental and Cultural Factors (p.372)  Food availability: people eat when food is available, and food scarcity limit consumption in poor places  Food tastes and variety: good taste and variety increase consumptions  Classical conditioning: we learn to associate the smell and sight of food with its taste, which triggers hunger  Cultural norms: influence when, how and what we eat  Social setting: eat more with group than alone Obesity  World’s heaviest known man and women in recorded history are ~1400 pounds.  According to Body Mass index (BMI), 25-30% of American adults are obese  Problems: Physical and health, Stigma and harassment, Stereotypes and judgment  Genetic – some get fat easily, some don’t. over 200 genes have been identified as possible contributors to obesity  Environment o Abundance of cheap but high fat food o “Super Value Menu” – supersizing menu items o Technology – decrease need for physical activity, also decrease time and more likely to get fast food o High levels of dopamine in brain’s “reward pathway” make people more sensitive to food o Example: Pimas of Arizona (p.373) Eating Disorders (p.373)  Anorexia nervosa: intense fear of being fat and severely restrict food intake to the point of self-starvation o Despite being underweight, they continue to view themselves as fat  Bulimia nervosa: afraid of becoming fat, they binge-eat and then purge the food o Usually maintain normal weight, but can produce severe physiological consequences such as gastric problems and Eroded teeth  Anorexics don’t see food restriction as problematic, but bulimics do  90% of people with anorexia and bulimia are women Causes of eating disorders: Environmental  Industrialized cultures: where thinness = beauty Psychological  Personality traits: perfectionists, high achievers, disapproving parents that set abnormally high standards o Anorexic: may refuse to eat to distress parents, gain self-control and power o Bulimia: depressed and anxious, low impulse control. Food cravings triggered by stress and eating help reduce negative emotions. But guild follows and purging help reduce it. Biological  High concordance rates  Abnormal activity of serotonin, leptin and other body chemicals S EXUAL M OTIVATION  Sex isn’t always to reproduce. In reality, people engage in sex to obtain and give sensual pleasure, express love, fulfill one’s “duty”, conform to peer pressure and a host of other reasons.  Changing pattern of sexual activity: increase in premarital sex, but now appears to have leveled off Physiology of Sex Sexual Response Cycle: (p.376) During sex, most people go through four stage of a cycle: excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution  Excitement: arousal builds rapidly, blood flow increase in genital organs, and vagina becomes lubricated.  Plateau phase: arousal continue to build until enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm  Orgasm phase: males – semen eject out of penis, female – contraction of vagina and surrounding muscles  Resolution phase: males - arousal decrease and genital return to normal conditions. Female – enter a refractory period, where they are temporarily incapable of another orgasm. Females can have 2+ successive orgasms before resolution phase. Hormones (p.377)  Hypothalamus controls pituitary gland, which regulates secretion of hormones called gonadotropins into the bloodstream.  In turn, these hormones affect the rate at which the gonads (testes in the male and ovaries in the female) secret androgens (masculine sex hormones eg testosterone) and estrogens (feminine sex hormones eg estradiol). Despite the labels, both men and women produce androgens and estrogens.  Activational effects – stimulate sexual desire and behavior.  Organizational effects – guide prenatal organ development along either a male or female pattern.  Both influence human behaviour  Hormones influence sexual desire Psychology of Sex  Turn-ons  Turn-offs o Sexual Fantasies o Stress, fatigue, anger o Men more than women o 1/3 women and 1/6 men lack interest o 1/2 of men and 1/5 of women once per day  Sexual dysfunction – chronic impairment causing distress – may result from injuries, diseases, drug effects or psychological Cultural and environmental influences (p.378)  Sexual customs – eg the kiss  Beliefs – Premarital sex, dress and behaviour, religion  Pornography o Models rape myths (suggesting men are entitled to sex and that women enjoy being coerced into sex) o Some correlations with rape, but  Countries with high rape rates don’t always have a lot of pornography  Sex offenders do not differ from non-offenders in amount or age of exposure to porn o May increase willingness of males to physically aggress against women (violent porn) o Depersonalizes sex o Decreases satisfaction with one’s own partner Sexual Orientation (p.379)  Refers to one’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex  Heterosexuals (opposite sex), homosexuals (same sex), bisexual (both sexes) Early beliefs of possible influences:
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