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Chapter 7

PSYC 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Slot Machine, Cognitive Map, Latent Learning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Russell Day
Chapter
7

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Psych 100 Textbook Notes: Chapter 7 Learning
Classical Conditioning: When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a
stimulus that naturally produces a response
Unconditioned stimulus (US): Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reactions
in an organism
Ex. Pavlov’s dog salivates when he sees food
Unconditioned response (UR): A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by a unconditioned
stimulus
Ex. Pavlov’s dog salivates when he sees food
Conditioned response (CS): A previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response to an
organism after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US)
Ex. Pavlov’s dog salivates to the sound of the bell because it has been paired with the
food multiple times
Conditioned response (CR): A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced
by a conditioned stimulus
Ex. Pavlov’s dog salivating to the sound of the bell
Acquisition: The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together
Initial phase of classical conditioning, there is a gradual increase in learning; starts low,
rises rapidly then tapers off slowly
Second - order conditioning: Conditioning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became
associated with the US in an earlier procedure
Ex. Pavlov’s dog presented with a new CS (black square) with the reliable tone
Extinction: The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly
presented without the US
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Ex. Pavlov’s dog stops salivating to the tone of a bell because it has been presented
without food
Spontaneous recovery: The tendency of a learned behaviour to recover from extinction after a
rest period
Ex. Pavlov’s dog is given a 24 hour break then being presented with the CS again
Generalization: The CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the CS used
during acquisition
Ex. Change in can opener in Pavlov’s dog experiment
Discrimination: The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli
Ex. Dog notices difference between manual can opener (used in acquisition) and new
electric can opener
The more an organism notices one version (generalization or discrimination) the less the
organism notices the other
Why didn’t Pavlov become a conditioned stimulus himself as well?
No expectation was set up because Pavlov was an unreliable stimulus, he was seen by the
dog doing other activities as well
The Rescorla Wagner model
Conditioning would be easier when the CS was an unfamiliar event opposed of a familiar
one
Familiar events already have expectations to them
Classical conditioning is associated to neural elements
o Fear conditioning in a rat has both psychological and behavioural components
The amygdala (central nucleus) plays important role
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