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Chapter 6

PSYC 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Psych, Explicit Memory, Wond


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Russell Day
Chapter
6

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Psych 100 Chapter 6: Memory
Textbook Notes
Introduction:
Memory: the ability to store and retrieve information overtime
Encoding: the process of transferring what we perceive, think or feel into an enduring
memory
Storage: the process of maintaining information in memory over time
Retrieval: the process of bringing to mind information that has previously been encoded
and stored
6.1 Encoding: Transforming Perceptions into Memory:
Memories are made by combining information we already know in our brains with new
information that comes in through our senses
Memories are constructed, not recorded
How we remember something depends on how we think about it at the time
o Ex. Pro gambler Bubbles found numbers unusually meaningful
Sematic Judgements: required the participants to think about the meaning of the word
Ex. Is Hat a type of clothing?
Rhyme Judgements: required the participants to think about the sound of the word
Ex. Does Hat rhyme with Cat?
Visual Judgements: required the participant to think about the appearance of the word
Ex. Is HAT written in upper or lower case?
Sematic encoding: the process of relating new information in a meaningful way to knowledge
that is already stored in memory
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Associated with increased activity in the lower left part of the frontal lobe & inner part of
the left temporal lobe
Visual Imagery Encoding: the process of storing new information by converting it into mental
pictures
Using visual imagery to encode words, you end up within two different placeholders both
visual and verbal
Occipital lobe is active
Organizational encoding: the process of categorizing information according to the relationships
among a series of items
Ex. Hot drinks, cold drinks, hot food, cold food
Activates the upper surface of the left frontal lobe
Encoding information in respects to its survival value is particularly effective to increase
subsequent recall
Memory systems have evolved to allow us to remember information that is
relevant to our survival
6.2 Storage: Maintaining Memories Over Time:
Three kinds of memory storage: sensory, short term and long term
Sensory Memory: a type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less
Iconic Memory Test Participants are able to memorize one row but information
fades away too quickly to remember every number
Iconic memory: fast decaying store of visual information
o Ex. Sperling’s research
Echoic memory: fast decaying store of auditory information
o “was listening” phenomenon
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