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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Study guide (part 1).docx

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PSYC 100
Russell Day

Chapter 11 Study Guide Motivation – the process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal- directed behaviour; what propels one to strive to do something Instinct – when exposed to a particular stimulus, an instinct is the specific and predicted way in which the subject will behave, based on an inherited predisposition  Humans are generally social creatures as it was needed for survival at one point. Those who were more more social survived and passed on their genes, making the majority of humans today social. Homeostasis – state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body tries to maintain (eg. Sweating when hot cools body)  Requires sensory mechanism for detection, response system to restore equilibrium, and a control centre to activate the response Drive theory – theory that physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives to reduce tension (eg. Hunger)  Not as popular of a theory as before Incentives –environmental stimuli that pulls organism towards a goal  No longer thought to stem from a biological need such as eating, as people have no problem with eating more than necessary Expectancy X value theory (aka. Expectancy theory) – two factors determine goal-oriented behaviour: 1) strength of expectation that the behaviour will lead to a goal; and 2) value placed on that goal (incentive value)  Motivation = expectancy X incentive value Extrinsic Motivation – doing something to avoid punishment or get an external reward Intrinsic Motivation – doing something purely for enjoyment Overjustification hypothesis – people who get extrinsic rewards for something they are already intrinsically motivated to do will have their intrinsic motivation reduced (turning “play” into “work”) Psychodynamic and Humanist theories Freud:  Freud believed all of our behaviour comes from a battle between our unconscious desires and our psychological defences to suppress said unconscious desires  Although this theory is no longer supported today, the basic idea of our conscious and unconscious drives affecting our actions is widely supported by neuroscience and cognitive psyc. Maslow:  Personal growth theory  Deficiency needs involve physical and social survival  Growth needs involve the need to develop our potential  Need hierarchy shows progression of needs, with deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top  Once the bottom needs have been fulfilled, we gravitate to the fulfillment of higher needs  Self actualization is the act of fulfilling our potential Relatively similar diagram to the one found in the book, except the textbook does not show the transcendence level.  This model is criticized by critics as some people forgo the bottom levels to meet other needs (anorexics rejecting food in order to fulfill the aesthetic need) Self-determination theory:  This modern approach to the above theory is strongly supported  3 psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness  Competence: humans’ desire to master skills and challenges  Autonomy: when people’s actions are from their free will and choice and not from outside interference  Relatedness: forming meaningful bonds with others  Each motivation compliments the other; a balance is required Hunger and Weight regulation Metabolism – rate that the body uses energy Basal Metabolism – 2/3 energy used is for supporting the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells  Short term signals make you feel hunger and make you feel satiated when you’re no longer hungry  Long term signals are based on how fat you are  These signals adjust appetite and metabolism  Mechanisms designed to prevent one from being “running low” on energy in the first place. Thus, one would feel hungry before energy supplies are low.  Set point – belief that there is an internal regulation of weight, so we normally return to our original weight whether or not we over/under eat, yet it is possible that one could settle in at a new weight Glucose – simple sugar that is the body’s major source of immediately usable fuel  Travels to cells to provide energy, and to liver/fat cells as nutrients for storage.  Hypothalamus and liver monitor levels, and when levels are low, liver converts nutrients back into glucose  Drop-rise pattern of glucose helps brain regulate hunger Stomach/intestinal distention – satiety signals, as walls of organs stretch  Patients wit
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