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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 research methods (part 1).docx

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PSYC 100
Russell Day

Chapter 2– Research methods in psychology (part 1) Steps in the scientific process: Identify – your question of interest Gather- information and form hypothesis Test – the hypothesis Analyze – your data Build – keep asking questions, more research, test new theories Hypothesis: specific prediction about a certain phenomenon Theory - set of formal statements that explain the relationship between events Hindsight: “I knew that all along!” Related events seem easily explainable, but are contradictory/misleading Operational definition: determine how to observe variables; turn an abstract concept into something measureable Case study: in depth analysis of an individual, group, etc Social desirability bias – people answer/behave/conform to social expectations Reaction time – how fast they respond to a stimulus Reliable – consistent observations Unobtrusive measures – records participants’ behaviour in a way that they are not aware of Archival measures – records/documents that already exist Psychological tests  Personality tests  Self-reports  Intelligence tests  Neuropsychological tests diagnose brain functioning by looking at how well they perform mental and physical tasks Physiological measures  Measure heart rate/ blood pressure, respiration, hormonal secretions, brain functioning  Determine emotions linked to a particular heart rate, etc Research Methods Case studies  In depth analysis  Allow for new hypotheses to develop and to study it closely  Poor method for determining cause-effect  Measurement/observer bias exists Naturalistic observation  Observing behaviour in natural setting without interfering/influencing behaviour  Too many variables, so interpretation is biased  Presence of observer can affect “natural” behaviour, fortunately most people habituate to observer’s presence Survey Research  Questionnaires and polls  Population is everyone the researchers are interested in  Sample, a subset of individuals from the larger population  Representative sample reflects the important characteristics of the population  Random sampling means everyone in that population has an equal chance at being chosen to participate Correlational research  One variable (X) i
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