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PSYC 100 (100)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Russell Day
Chapter
2

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PSYC 100 – STUDYING BEHAVIOR SCIENTIFICALLY
2
The scientific process is used to build theories
Question Hypothesis Test Draw Conclusion
Theory: Set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related
to one another
A good theory organizes information in a meaningful way, testable,
supports the new research, law of parsimony: if two theories can explain and
predict the same phenomenon equally well, the simpler theory is preferred
Hindsight: Explanation after the event
Variable: Any characteristic or factor that can vary
Operational Definition: Defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used
to produce or measure it | Translates variables from abstract terms to something
observable and measurable
Unobtrusive Measures: Gathering information in a way that keeps participants
unaware that they are being watched
Archival Measures: Gathering information from previous records and documents
Informed Consent: Inform participants about the nature of the test
Methods of Research
Descriptive Research: To identify how humans and other animals behave
Case Study: In-depth analysis of an individual, group or event
Problems with Case Study:
Generalizability of things
Bad for determining cause-effect relations
May be biased
Naturalistic Observation: The researcher observes behavior as it occurs in a natural
setting
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