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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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PSYC 100
Russell Day

PSYC 100 – LEARNING AND ADAPTION 6 • Learning: Process by which experience chances an organism’s behavior or capabilities • • A DAPTING TO THE E NVIRONMENT • Adaption through personal adaption and species adaption • Must learn: • Important survival events • What stimuli signal shows the occurance of the important event • If the event will produce positive or negative consequences • Two learning perspectives: behaviorism and ethology • Behaviorism: We all start off as a blank tablet, tabula rasa • Ethology: Focused learning through the adaption to the environment to survive • Adaptive Significance: How a behavior influences an organism’s chance of survival and reproduction in its natural environment • Fixed Action Pattern: An unlearned, instinctive behaviour automatically triggered by a particular stimulus • Habituation: Decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus • • C LASSICAL C ONDITIONING • Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian): Organism learns to associate two stimuli, such that one stimulus comes to elicit a response which was only by the other stimulus (song and happiness, now the song brings a happy response) • Acquisition: Period during which a response is being learned • Neutral Stimulus: Stimulus does not associate with anything specific • Reflexive: The reflex action by natural conditioning • Unconditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without prior learning www.notesolution.com Psyc 100 Chapter 1 • Unconditioned Response: A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus without prior learning • Learning Trial: Pairing two stimulus for acquisition • Conditioned Stimulus: Conditioned Stimulus that gives a specific conditioned response • Conditioned Response: A response elicited by a conditioned stimulus • One-Trial Learning: Learning a Conditioned Stimulus after one intense Unconditioned Stimulus • Learning is quickest by forward short-delay pairing, CS (tone) sounds and continues even when the UCS (food) appears • (at least 2 or 3 seconds before UCS) • Forward Trace Learning Pairing: tone sounds then stops, then food is presented • (at least 2 or 3 seconds before UCS) • Simultaneous Pairing: CS and UCS at the same time, slower learning • Backward Pairing: CS is presented after UCS, slowest • www.notesolution.com PSYC 100 – LEARNING AND ADAPTION 6 • Extinction: Process where CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS, causing the CS to weaken and eventually disappear • Every extinction trial is called extinction trial • Spontaneous Recovery: The reappearance of a previously extinguished CR after a rest period and without new learning trials • Stimulus Generalization: Stimuli similar to the initial CS give a similar CR • Discrimination: A CR occurs to certain stimulus, but not to others • Higher-Order Conditioning: A neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS • Typically produces a weaker CR • Exposure Therapies: Patient is exposed to a stimulus (CS), that arouses an anxiety response (such as fear) without the presence of the UCS, allowing extinction to occur • Systematic Desensitization: Patient learns muscle relaxing techniques while being exposed to the fear-provoking stimulus • Flooding: Immediate exposures to the phobic stimulus • Aversion Therapy: Attempts to condition an aversion (a repulsion) to a stimulus that triggers unwanted behavior by pairing it with a noxious UCS • Eg.: To treat a pedophile, therapists pair children photos with an electric shock • Short-term results, extinguished over time • Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting: Patients become nauseated and may vomit anywhere from minutes to hours before a treatment session • • O PERANT C ONDITIONING • Instrumental Learning: Learning by active trial-and-error • Law of Effect: In a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur and a response followed by an annoying consequence will become less likely to occur • Operant Behavior: An organism operates on its environment in some way www.notesolution.com Psyc 100 Chapter 1 • Operant Conditioning: Type of learning where behavior is influenced by the consequences that follow it • Skinner Box: A special chamber used to study operant conditioning experimentally • Reinforcement: A response is strengthened by an outcome that follows it • Positive Reinforcement: Response is strengthened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus (positive reinforcer) • Primary Reinforcers: Stimuli that an organism naturally finds reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs • Secondary (Conditioned) Reinforcers: Stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through their associated with primary reinforcers (such as money) • Negative Reinforcement: Response strengthen by the subsequent removal of an aversive (disliking) stimulus • Punishment: A response is we
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