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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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PSYC 100
Russell Day

PSYC 100 – MEMORY 7 • M EMORY AS INFORMATION PROCESSING • Memory: Processes that allow us to record, store or retrieve past experiences • Encoding: Getting information into the system by translating it into a code your brain understands • Storage: Retaining information over time • Retrieval: Processes that access stored information • Sensory Memory: Briefly holds incoming sensory information • Sensory Registers: Sensory subsystems • Iconic Store: Visual sensory register • Echoic Store: Sound sensory register • Short-Term Memory/Working Memory: A memory store that temporarily holds a limited amount of information • Has 3 components to it: • Phonological Loop: Stores sound info • Visuopatial Sketchpad: Stores visual and spatial info • Episodic Buffer: Space to pull information from long-term memory and also manipulate and make conscious for the brain • Central Executive: Directs actions of conscious memory • Memory Codes: Mental representations of some type of information • Visual Codes: Mental images • Phonological Codes: Sound • Semantic Codes: Stimulus • Motor Codes: Movement • Chunking: Combining individual items into larger units of meaning • Long-Term Memory: Library of more durable stored memories • Unlimited storage capacity www.notesolution.com Psyc 100 Chapter 1 • Serial Position Effect: The ability to recall an item is influenced by the item’s position in a series • Primacy Effect: A superior recall of the earlier items • Items are being transferred into the long-term memory • Recency Effect: A superior recall of the most recent items • Items are continued in the short-term memory • • E NCODING : E NTERING INFORMATION • Effortful Processing: Encoding that requires intentionally and conscious attention • Automatic Processing: Encoding that occurs without intention and minimal attention • Levels of Processing: The more deeply we process information, the better we will remember it • Structural Encoding: Looking at the item • Phonemic Encoding: Sound of the item • Semantic Encoding: Critical analysis of the item • Maintenance Rehearsal: Involves simple repetition for memorization • Elaborative Rehearsal: Involves focusing on the meaning of information or expanding it in some way • Dual Coding Theory: Encoding information using both verbal and visual codes enhances memory because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall • Method of Loci: A memory aid that associates information with mental images of physical locations • Mnemonic Device: Memory aid • Mnemonist/Memorist: Person who displays extraordinary memory skills • Schema: A mental framework about some aspect of the world • A common element / theme to help remember www.notesolution.com PSYC 100 – MEMORY 7 • • STORAGE : RETAINING INFORMATION • Associative Network: A massive network of associated ideas and concepts, with each node contain 1 concept or information 1. Ex.: Node 4 = red | Node 23 = fire 2. Priming: The activation of one concept by another • Neural Network Models (Connectionist): Each memory is represented by a unique pattern of interconnected and simultaneously activated nodes 1. Ex.: Node 4 + Node 3 = red | Node 4 + Node 23 + Node 55 = fire 2. Also known as Parallel Distributed Processing Models • • T YPES OF L ONG -TERM M EMORY • Declarative Memory: Factual knowledge (we tell people what we know), has two subcategories: 1. Episodic Memory: Store of knowledge concerning personal experiences 2. Semantic Memory: Store of general factual knowledge about the world, language, words and concepts • Procedural (nondeclarative) Memory: Knowledge in skills and actions 1
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