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PSYC 100 (100)
Chapter 7

PSYC 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Connectionism, Coding Theory, Sketchpad


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Russell Day
Chapter
7

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PSYC 100 – MEMORY
7
MEMORY AS INFORMATION PROCESSING
Memory: Processes that allow us to record, store or retrieve past experiences
Encoding: Getting information into the system by translating it into a code your
brain understands
Storage: Retaining information over time
Retrieval: Processes that access stored information
Sensory Memory: Briefly holds incoming sensory information
Sensory Registers: Sensory subsystems
Iconic Store: Visual sensory register
Echoic Store: Sound sensory register
Short-Term Memory/Working Memory: A memory store that temporarily holds a
limited amount of information
Has 3 components to it:
Phonological Loop: Stores sound info
Visuopatial Sketchpad: Stores visual and spatial info
Episodic Buffer: Space to pull information from long-term memory and also
manipulate and make conscious for the brain
Central Executive: Directs actions of conscious memory
Memory Codes: Mental representations of some type of information
Visual Codes: Mental images
Phonological Codes: Sound
Semantic Codes: Stimulus
Motor Codes: Movement
Chunking: Combining individual items into larger units of meaning
Long-Term Memory: Library of more durable stored memories
Unlimited storage capacity
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Psyc 100 Chapter 1
Serial Position Effect: The ability to recall an item is influenced by the items
position in a series
Primacy Effect: A superior recall of the earlier items
Items are being transferred into the long-term memory
Recency Effect: A superior recall of the most recent items
Items are continued in the short-term memory
ENCODING: ENTERING INFORMATION
Effortful Processing: Encoding that requires intentionally and conscious attention
Automatic Processing: Encoding that occurs without intention and minimal attention
Levels of Processing: The more deeply we process information, the better we will
remember it
Structural Encoding: Looking at the item
Phonemic Encoding: Sound of the item
Semantic Encoding: Critical analysis of the item
Maintenance Rehearsal: Involves simple repetition for memorization
Elaborative Rehearsal: Involves focusing on the meaning of information or
expanding it in some way
Dual Coding Theory: Encoding information using both verbal and visual codes
enhances memory because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be
available later to support recall
Method of Loci: A memory aid that associates information with mental images of
physical locations
Mnemonic Device: Memory aid
Mnemonist/Memorist: Person who displays extraordinary memory skills
Schema: A mental framework about some aspect of the world
A common element / theme to help remember
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