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PSYC 100 (164)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 100
Russell Day

PSYC 100 – MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 10 • PERSPECTIVES ON M OTIVATION • Motivation: Processes that influences the direction, persistence and vigor of goal- directed behavior • Instinct: An inherited characteristic that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus • H OMEOSTASIS AND D RIVES • Homeostasis: State of internal physiological equilibrium for the body • Drives: States of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension • A PPROACH AND A VOIDANCE M OTIVATION: BAS AND BIS • Behavioral Activation System (BAS): Theory where a person takes action through signals of potential reward and positive need gratification • Located in prefrontal left hemisphere • Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS): Avoidance motivation, you try to avoid stimuli that signals potential pain, non-reinforcement and punishment • Located in right frontal lobe • INCENTIVES AND E XPECTANCIES • Incentives: Environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal • Expectancies x Value Theory: Goal-directed behavior is determined by the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviors will lead to a goal and by the incentive value the individual places on that goal • Motivation = Expectancy x Incentive Value • Extrinsic Motivation: Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment • Intrinsic Motivation: Performing an activity for its own sake because you find it enjoyable or challenging • PSYCHODYNAMIC AND H UMANISTIC V IEWS • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs www.notesolution.com Psyc 100 Chapter 1 • Self-Actualization represents the need to fulfill our potential, is the ultimate human motive • Self-Determination Theory: Based on 3 fundamental needs: Competence, autonomy (independence) and relatedness • • H UNGER AND W EIGHT R EGULATION • Metabolism: Body’s rate of energy utilization • Set Point: A biologically determined standard around which body weight is regulated • Glucose: Sugar fuel for the brain • Cholecystokinin (CCK): Hormone which helps produce satiety • Leptin: Hormone secreted by fat, decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure • Neuropeptide Y: Stimulates appetite • Lateral Hypothalamus Hunger on • Ventromedial Hypothalamus Hunger off • Paraventricular Nucleus: Cluster of neurons with receptor sites that stimulate or reduce appetite • Anorexia Nervosa: Intense fear of being fat and severely restrict their food intake to the point of self-starvation • Bilimia Nervosa: Fear of becoming fat, they eat then vomit the food • • S EXUAL M OTIVATION • Sexual Response Cycle: A 4 stage cycle of excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution • Excitement: Blood flows to certain body parts • Plateau: Arousal builds until enough muscle tension for orgasm • Resolution: The return to normal state after an orgasm www.notesolution.com PSYC 100 – MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 10 • Refractory Period: Period where there cannot be another orgasm • The Hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland, which affect sexual motivation • Sex hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics • Sex hormones also have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behavior • Sexual Dysfunction: Chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person • Cultural norms consider what sexual practices are normal • Environment stimuli affect sexual desire • Viewing sexual violence reinforces men’s belief in rape • Sexual orientation involves dimensions of self-identity, sexual attraction, actual sexual behavior • • N EEDS FOR A FFILIATION AND INTIMACY • To obtain positive stimulation • To receive emotional support • To gain attention • To permit social comparison: comparing our beliefs, feelings and behaviors with other people to determine what is “normal” • There is a “homeostatic model” of affiliating with people and being in solitude • Sexual Strategies Theory: Mating strategies and preferences reflect inherited tendencies shaped over the ages in response to different types of adaptive problems that men and women faces (evolution) • Social Structure Theory: Men and women display different mating preferences because society directs them into different social roles (social) • • A CHIEVEMENT M OTIVATION • Need for Achievement: A positive desire to accomplish tasks and
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