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PSYC 100 Chapter Notes -Connectionism, Flashbulb Memory, Episodic Memory

5 pages60 viewsSummer 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
A.George Alder

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MEMORY
Memory – processes that allow us to record, store and retrieve information/experiences
mind encodes, stores and retrieves
encoding – getting info into system by translating it into a neural code that brain uses. Requires us to
use selective attention
storage – retaining information over time
retrieval – accessing stored information
Atkinson and Shiffrin propsed a 3 stage model that had 3 major components
(1) sensory memory: briefly holds incoming sensory information; has sensory registers which are
initial information processors
iconic store – visual sensory register
echoic store – auditory sensory register
can hold info for several seconds more than visual
(2) short term memory – memory store that temporarily holds a limited amount of information
can maintain 20-30secs; 7+- 2 items
is a working memory – limited capacity; temporarily stores/processes info
memory codes – mental representations of some type of info/stimulus
visual codes – mental images
phonological codes – coding sound of stimuli
semantic codes –coding of meaning of stimuli
motor codes – coding patterns of movement
phonological loops – briefly stores mental representations of sounds
visuospatial sketchpad – stores visual/spatial information
episodic buffer – temporary storage where info from long term memory and
phonological/visualspatial info are made to use in conscious awareness
comes to play when you chunk info
central executive – directs overall action (ex. Solving math question, planning out steps)
chunking – combining individual items (letters) into bigger units of meaning
(3) long term memory – vast library of more durable stored memories
essentially unlimited and lasts a lifetime
not always accurate
ex) “Flashbulb memory” - unusual vivid memories people have of spectacular events but not
always accurate
can be recalled under hypnosis
serial position effect – ability to recall an item is influenced by item's position in series
primacy effect superior recall of earliest items
why we remember? Translated the info from short term to long term
recency effectsuperior recall of most recent item
why we remember? Still lingering in short term memory
can be terminated if we don't rehearse
ENCODING: ENTERING INFORMATION
is effortful processing = aka requires selective attention
is also automatic processing; require little attention and w/o intention
Levels of processing – the more deeply we process info, the better we remember it:
(1) structural encoding – the way the word looks, structure of it
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Is the word in caps?
(2) phonemic encoding – sound of the word
Does the word rhyme w/ “course”
(3) semantic encoding – must pay attention to meaning of the word
Does the word fit into this sentence?
Best recall; deepest processing – makes you sound out the word and imagine it and figure out the
meaning of it
EXPOSURE AND REHEARSAL
mere exposure to stimuli w/o focusing is only shallow processing
maintenance rehearsal – simple, rote repetition of rehearsing
keeps in working memory
elaborative rehearsal – focus on meaning of information or elaborating/expanding it in some way
ORGANIZATION AND IMAGERY
making hierarchy enhances associations b/w concepts
chunking also works well b/c it's easier to rehearse IRS, YMCA, than IRSYMCA
Pavio's dual-coding theory – encoding info using both verbal and visual cues enhances memory b/c
the odds improve at least one of the codes to be recalled
Method of Loci – associate information w/ mental images of physical locations
Mnemonics art of improving memory
mnemonic device – memory aid; organizing info into meaningful units and provide extra cues to help
retrieve info from LTM
ex) chunking, visual imagery, method of loci
acronym – combining pieces of info into one or more letters
mnemonist (memorist) – person who displays extraordinary memory skills
schema – mental framework – an organizing pattern of thought – about some aspect of the world
STORAGE: RETAINING INFORMATION
memory works like a network
associative network – massive network of associated ideas and concepts
eg) spreading activation: red – fire truck, ambulance, fire, cherries
priming – activation of one concept by another
neural network (connectionist) models – each memory represented unique pattern of interconnected and
simultaneously activated nodes
each node in neural networks is a small information processing unit
parallel distributed processing models (PDP) – neural network (connectionist) models
neural network fire in parallel to spread info to other nods
TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORY
(1) Declarative memory – involving factual knowledge; has two subcategories
Episodic memory – store of knowledge concerning personal experiences: when,where, what
happened in episodes of our lives
Semantic memory – general factual knowledge about world/language/words/concepts
(2) Procedural (nondeclarative) memory – reflected in skills and actions
explicit memory – conscious/intentional memory retrieval when you consciously recognize something
recognition – whether stimulus is familiar
recall – spontaneous memory retrieval
cued recall – hints given to stimulate memory
implicit memorymemory influences behaviour w/o conscious awareness
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