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PSYC 100 (180)


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PSYC 100
A.George Alder

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MEMORY • Memory – processes that allow us to record, store and retrieve information/experiences ◦ mind encodes, stores and retrieves ◦ encoding – getting info into system by translating it into a neural code that brain uses. Requires us to use selective attention ◦ storage – retaining information over time ◦ retrieval – accessing stored information • Atkinson and Shiffrin propsed a 3 stage model that had 3 major components ◦ (1) sensory memory: briefly holds incoming sensory information; has sensory registers which are initial information processors ▪ iconic store – visual sensory register ▪ echoic store – auditory sensory register • can hold info for several seconds more than visual ◦ (2) short term memory – memory store that temporarily holds a limited amount of information ▪ can maintain 20-30secs; 7+- 2 items ▪ is a working memory – limited capacity; temporarily stores/processes info ▪ memory codes – mental representations of some type of info/stimulus • visual codes – mental images • phonological codes – coding sound of stimuli • semantic codes –coding of meaning of stimuli • motor codes – coding patterns of movement ▪ phonological loops – briefly stores mental representations of sounds ▪ visuospatial sketchpad – stores visual/spatial information ▪ episodic buffer – temporary storage where info from long term memory and phonological/visualspatial info are made to use in conscious awareness • comes to play when you chunk info ▪ central executive – directs overall action (ex. Solving math question, planning out steps) ▪ chunking – combining individual items (letters) into bigger units of meaning ◦ (3) long term memory – vast library of more durable stored memories ▪ essentially unlimited and lasts a lifetime ▪ not always accurate • ex) “Flashbulb memory” - unusual vivid memories people have of spectacular events but not always accurate • can be recalled under hypnosis ▪ serial position effect – ability to recall an item is influenced by item's position in series • primacy effect – superior recall of earliest items ◦ why we remember? Translated the info from short term to long term • recency effect – superior recall of most recent item ◦ why we remember? Still lingering in short term memory ◦ can be terminated if we don't rehearse ENCODING: ENTERING INFORMATION • is effortful processing = aka requires selective attention • is also automatic processing; require little attention and w/o intention • Levels of processing – the more deeply we process info, the better we remember it: ◦ (1) structural encoding – the way the word looks, structure of it ▪ Is the word in caps? ◦ (2) phonemic encoding – sound of the word ▪ Does the word rhyme w/ “course” ◦ (3) semantic encoding – must pay attention to meaning of the word ▪ Does the word fit into this sentence? ▪ Best recall; deepest processing – makes you sound out the word and imagine it and figure out the meaning of it EXPOSUREAND REHEARSAL • mere exposure to stimuli w/o focusing is only shallow processing • maintenance rehearsal – simple, rote repetition of rehearsing ◦ keeps in working memory • elaborative rehearsal – focus on meaning of information or elaborating/expanding it in some way ORGANIZATION AND IMAGERY • making hierarchy enhances associations b/w concepts • chunking also works well b/c it's easier to rehearse IRS, YMCA, than IRSYMCA • Pavio's dual-coding theory – encoding info using both verbal and visual cues enhances memory b/c the odds improve at least one of the codes to be recalled • Method of Loci – associate information w/ mental images of physical locations • Mnemonics – art of improving memory ◦ mnemonic device – memory aid; organizing info into meaningful units and provide extra cues to help retrieve info from LTM ◦ ex) chunking, visual imagery, method of loci ◦ acronym – combining pieces of info into one or more letters ◦ mnemonist (memorist) – person who displays extraordinary memory skills • schema – mental framework – an organizing pattern of thought – about some aspect of the world STORAGE: RETAINING INFORMATION • memory works like a network • associative network – massive network of associated ideas and concepts ◦ eg) spreading activation: red – fire truck, ambulance, fire, cherries ◦ priming – activation of one concept by another • neural network (connectionist) models – each memory represented unique pattern of interconnected and simultaneously activated nodes ◦ each node in neural networks is a small information processing unit ◦ parallel distributed processing models (PDP) – neural network (connectionist) models ▪ neural network fire in parallel to spread info to other nods TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORY • (1) Declarative memory – involving factual knowledge; has two subcategories ◦ Episodic memory – store of knowledge concerning personal experiences: when,where, what happened in episodes of our lives ◦ Semantic memory – general factual knowledge about world/language/words/concepts • (2) Procedural (nondeclarative) memory – reflected in skills and actions • explicit memory – conscious/intentional memory retrieval when you consciously recognize something ◦ recognition – whether stimulus is familiar ◦ recall – spontaneous memory retrieval ◦ cued recall – hints given to stimulate memory • implicit memory – memory influences behaviour w/o conscious awareness ◦ ex) Edouard's pin handshake RETRIEVAL:ACCESSINVE INFORMATION • retrieval cue – stimulus that activates information stored in LTM • when cues are self-generated, retrieval of the memory increases; why? Have personal meanings • some events may be better remembered not only b/c they're distinctive but they stir up o
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