Textbook Notes (362,837)
Canada (158,073)
Psychology (900)
PSYC 100 (164)


5 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
PSYC 100
A.George Alder

MEMORY • Memory – processes that allow us to record, store and retrieve information/experiences ◦ mind encodes, stores and retrieves ◦ encoding – getting info into system by translating it into a neural code that brain uses. Requires us to use selective attention ◦ storage – retaining information over time ◦ retrieval – accessing stored information • Atkinson and Shiffrin propsed a 3 stage model that had 3 major components ◦ (1) sensory memory: briefly holds incoming sensory information; has sensory registers which are initial information processors ▪ iconic store – visual sensory register ▪ echoic store – auditory sensory register • can hold info for several seconds more than visual ◦ (2) short term memory – memory store that temporarily holds a limited amount of information ▪ can maintain 20-30secs; 7+- 2 items ▪ is a working memory – limited capacity; temporarily stores/processes info ▪ memory codes – mental representations of some type of info/stimulus • visual codes – mental images • phonological codes – coding sound of stimuli • semantic codes –coding of meaning of stimuli • motor codes – coding patterns of movement ▪ phonological loops – briefly stores mental representations of sounds ▪ visuospatial sketchpad – stores visual/spatial information ▪ episodic buffer – temporary storage where info from long term memory and phonological/visualspatial info are made to use in conscious awareness • comes to play when you chunk info ▪ central executive – directs overall action (ex. Solving math question, planning out steps) ▪ chunking – combining individual items (letters) into bigger units of meaning ◦ (3) long term memory – vast library of more durable stored memories ▪ essentially unlimited and lasts a lifetime ▪ not always accurate • ex) “Flashbulb memory” - unusual vivid memories people have of spectacular events but not always accurate • can be recalled under hypnosis ▪ serial position effect – ability to recall an item is influenced by item's position in series • primacy effect – superior recall of earliest items ◦ why we remember? Translated the info from short term to long term • recency effect – superior recall of most recent item ◦ why we remember? Still lingering in short term memory ◦ can be terminated if we don't rehearse ENCODING: ENTERING INFORMATION • is effortful processing = aka requires selective attention • is also automatic processing; require little attention and w/o intention • Levels of processing – the more deeply we process info, the better we remember it: ◦ (1) structural encoding – the way the word looks, structure of it ▪ Is the word in caps? ◦ (2) phonemic encoding – sound of the word ▪ Does the word rhyme w/ “course” ◦ (3) semantic encoding – must pay attention to meaning of the word ▪ Does the word fit into this sentence? ▪ Best recall; deepest processing – makes you sound out the word and imagine it and figure out the meaning of it EXPOSUREAND REHEARSAL • mere exposure to stimuli w/o focusing is only shallow processing • maintenance rehearsal – simple, rote repetition of rehearsing ◦ keeps in working memory • elaborative rehearsal – focus on meaning of information or elaborating/expanding it in some way ORGANIZATION AND IMAGERY • making hierarchy enhances associations b/w concepts • chunking also works well b/c it's easier to rehearse IRS, YMCA, than IRSYMCA • Pavio's dual-coding theory – encoding info using both verbal and visual cues enhances memory b/c the odds improve at least one of the codes to be recalled • Method of Loci – associate information w/ mental images of physical locations • Mnemonics – art of improving memory ◦ mnemonic device – memory aid; organizing info into meaningful units and provide extra cues to help retrieve info from LTM ◦ ex) chunking, visual imagery, method of loci ◦ acronym – combining pieces of info into one or more letters ◦ mnemonist (memorist) – person who displays extraordinary memory skills • schema – mental framework – an organizing pattern of thought – about some aspect of the world STORAGE: RETAINING INFORMATION • memory works like a network • associative network – massive network of associated ideas and concepts ◦ eg) spreading activation: red – fire truck, ambulance, fire, cherries ◦ priming – activation of one concept by another • neural network (connectionist) models – each memory represented unique pattern of interconnected and simultaneously activated nodes ◦ each node in neural networks is a small information processing unit ◦ parallel distributed processing models (PDP) – neural network (connectionist) models ▪ neural network fire in parallel to spread info to other nods TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORY • (1) Declarative memory – involving factual knowledge; has two subcategories ◦ Episodic memory – store of knowledge concerning personal experiences: when,where, what happened in episodes of our lives ◦ Semantic memory – general factual knowledge about world/language/words/concepts • (2) Procedural (nondeclarative) memory – reflected in skills and actions • explicit memory – conscious/intentional memory retrieval when you consciously recognize something ◦ recognition – whether stimulus is familiar ◦ recall – spontaneous memory retrieval ◦ cued recall – hints given to stimulate memory • implicit memory – memory influences behaviour w/o conscious awareness ◦ ex) Edouard's pin handshake RETRIEVAL:ACCESSINVE INFORMATION • retrieval cue – stimulus that activates information stored in LTM • when cues are self-generated, retrieval of the memory increases; why? Have personal meanings • some events may be better remembered not only b/c they're distinctive but they stir up o
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 100

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.