Chapter 10: Intelligence
Intelligence: individual differences in the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason
effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment.
It is a socially constructed concept, not something with a concrete existence.
HISTORY OF INTELLIGENCE
Sir Francis Galton – first one to raise awareness that we can measure intelligence/mental abilities.
Alfred Binet – hired by French government to create a test that could help children get the appropriate education
o two assumptions:
1. mental abilities develop with age.
2. the rate of at which people gain mental competence is a characteristics of the person and is fairly constant over
eg a child who is less competent than expected at age 5 should also be lagging at age 10
o He found out what kind of answers children of different age can answer and developed a standardized interview in
which adult can ask children to determine their mental level.
o The result of the test was a scored mental age .
o Eg if 8 years old child can answer a 10 years old problem, then their mental age would be 10.
William Stern – provided a relative score for people of different chronological ages
o Ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100; IQ = (MA/CA) X100
o 2 year retarded - 10 year old who thought like 8 year old
o A 8yrs old child with MA of 10, will have 125 IQ. So does a 16 years old with a MA 20. The two are comparable in
intelligence even though their ages differed
o Today they no longer us it because it is less useful when child becomes adult. Today instead of a quotient, we base the
IQ test on persons’ performance relative to the scores of other people of the same age, with 100 corresponding to the
average performance of that age.
Lewis Terman – Revised test in America (Standford-Binet) and became gold standard for measuring mental aptitude in
o StudentArthur Otis worked of a group administered test of intelligence and became prototype for Army Alpha,
verbally oriented test for the Army. A non-verbal version was also created called Army Beta.
NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE
Psychometric Approaches – structure of intellect
Psychometrics: statistical study of psychological tests. They try to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual
differences in performance. It tries to provide a measurement-based map of the mind.
Factor analysis – correlations among test scores to identify clusters of measures that correlate highly with one another, and
therefore are assumed to have a common underlying factor, such as verbal ability or mathematical reasoning
Charles Spearman : g factor ” – “general factor/intelligence”, the core of intelligence that cuts across all tasks. Noticed
that subjects like English and math were almost always positively correlated, and believes that although math and verbal
abilities are different, they reflect a more basic and general mental capacity that contributes to them.
L.L. Thurstone – challenged Sperman’s g factor, and believed human mental performance depends not on a general factor
but on seven distinct abiliSeven Primary Mental Abilities
S – Space (reasoning about visual scenes)
V – Verbal Comprehension (understanding verbal statements)
W – Word Fluency (Producing verbal statements)
N – Number Facility (dealing with numbers)
P – Perceptual speed ( recognizing visual patterns)
M – Rote memory (memorizing)
R – Reasoning (dealing with novel problems) Cattell and Horn – Crystallized intelligence and Fluid intelligence
Crystalized – ability to apply previously learned info to current problems (vocab and info test), depends on ability to
retrieve previously learned info and problem-solving schemas from long-term memory
Fluid – ability to deal with new problem-solving situations, where experience does not provide a solution. It requires
inductive reasoning and creative problem solving skills. It requires abstract reasoning, logical thinking, and ability
manage information in working (short-term) memory .
o Combined g factor, 7 primary mental abilities, and crystallized/fluids intelligence into the most complete and detailed
map of human intellect
o Three level of mental skills: general, broad, narrow, arranged in hierarchial model
o Top: General (Stratum 3) = g factor
o Middle: Broad (stratum 2) =
eight broad intellectual factors, including crystallized/fluid intelligence, and basic cognitive functions such as memory
and learning, perceptual abilities, and speed of mental functioning, some of which resemble Thurstone’s primary
o Bottom: Narrow (Stratum1) =
around 70 highly specific cognitive abilities
Cognitive Process Approaches – specific thought processes that underlie mental competencies
Sternberg –Triarchic theory of Intelligence- includes both psychological processes involved in intelligent
behavior and the diverse forms that intelligence can take.
Underlying Cognitive Processes
o Metacomponents – plan and regulate task, involving problem-solving skills such as identifying problems, formulating
hypotheses and strategies, testing them logically and evaluating feedbacks. (source of individual differences in fluid
intelligence. Intelligent people spend more time framing problems and developing strategies.)
o Performance components: actual mental processes used to perform the task. This includes perceptual processing,
retrieving appropriate memories and schemas to generate responses.
o Knowledge acquisition components: allow us to learn from our experiences, store info and combine new insights.
(underlie individual diff. in crystallized intelligence. )
Three types of Intellectual competence
o Analytical intelligence: academically orientated problem-solving skills
o Practical intelligence: skills needed to cope with everyday demands
o Creative intelligence: mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel prlobems
Gardner – Multiple Intelligence
1. Linguistic intelligence: use language
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence: using math
3. Visuospatial intelligence: solve spatial problems