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Psyc102b - Ch14 - Personality.docx

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PSYC 102
Russell Day

Psychology 102 Chapter 14: Personality P.I.D.: Personality and Individual Differences  What is personality? Why PID? o Personality was hard to measure, always being inferred, so we call it “individual differences”  “Personality as the distinctive and relatively consistent ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person's responses to different life situations” (Smith, 1993) o Consistent; if honest will most likely be honest; Think about being honest, will feel good when honest, behave in ways others consider to be honest  “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his or her characteristic behaviour and thought. (Allport, 1961) o Dynamic – not stable, always changing (even though we want it to be stable) o Organization – stable structure, not random elements, “revolve within reaction range” – organizied within o Within the individual – internal, not imposed from environment o Psychological systems – related elements in system– honesty, trustworthyness o Determine (“ing”) – does personality give rise to behavior?? o Behaviour and thought – dominating many behavior?  Consistency and individuality, customary ways of responding to their world Components that attribute to personality (Levy)  behaviour provides components of identity ( I do something honest, Others call me honest, I think of myself as honest and becomes part of me)  behaviour is seen as internally motivated, not externally motivated (something inside is causing our behavior, which is why the legal system punish individual for crime because they are motivated from inside, although debatable)  behaviour is seen as part of an organized and structured whole (not one day nice one day nasty) State versus Trait  some behaviours are more indicative of personality (trait: expect to be consistent. Mood: changes depend on situation, not indicative of personality)  some traits seem to be related in clusters ( implicit personality theories – we think fat and jolly, warm and caring)  our perceptions of the meaning of a person's behaviour are as accurate as anyone else's perceptions (we always think we are right so people might agree when inferring other’s personality traits) THEORIES OF PERSONALITY Trait and Biological Perspective  How do people differ in personality? Goal of trait theorists are to describe basic classes of behavior that define personality, measuring individual differences, and understand and predict behavior  Wanted to identify behavior that define a particular trait, Allport found 18,000 words, and tried to condense into small number. Using factor analysis (identify clusters of specific behaviors that correlate with one another so highly that they can be viewed as reflecting a same basic trait) o Introversion-extraversion: behavioral patterns of the socially reserved and socially active on each end of dimension Trait Perspective or Paradigm - Differences • how groups of people might behave in specific situations--not the individual • describing personality variables and predicting behaviour--not explaining behaviour • comparisons between people • Trait approach says very little about CHANGE--no therapeutic approach based on trait approach Cattell’s sixteen personality factors  Identified 16 basic behavior clusters with factor analysis, could also give personality profiles to groups of people 1. Reaserved Outgoing 2. Less intelligentmore intelligent 3. Affected by feelingsemotionally stable 4. Submissive dominant 5. Serious happy-go-lucky 6. Expedient conscientious 7. Timid venturesome 8. Tough-minded sensitive 9. Trusting suspicious 10. Practical imaginative 11. Forthright shrewd 12. Self-assured apprehensive 13. Conservative experimenting 14. Group-dependent self-sufficient 15. uncontrolled controlled 16. Relaxed tense Eysenck’s Extraversion-Stability Model  Extraversion: sociable, active, taking risks (under aroused)  Introversion: socially reserved, solitary activities, caution (overly aroused)  Stability: high emotional stability, self control, calm  Instability: moodiness, worry excessively, easily provoked o 2x2 dimension - independent, uncorrelated, mixture of two dimesons o Chart p559  Eg: high on instabilityneuroticism ), high extraversion = touch, aggressive, restless  Eg high stability, high extraversion, carefree, lively, leadership  Third dimension: psychoticism-self control – not psychosis, or pathology, but someone who is creative and have a tendency toward nonconformity, impulsivity and social deviance o BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: o Believed the brain has a preferred level of biological arousal in the brain o Introverts are overly aroused so need to minimize stimulation, reduce arousal to get down to optimal arousal level/comfort zone o Extraverts – underaroused, need powerful and frequent stimulation or suffers from boredom o Unstable – large and sudden shifts in arousal o stable – smaller and more gradual shifts in arousal changes Five Factor Model – the Big Five  May be universal to all human species  OCEAN – openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neutroticism  Openness - curious, imaginative, artistic, excitable, values  Conscientiousness –efficient, organized, not careless, achievement striving, self-discipline (not lazy), not impulsive  Extraversion –sociable, assertive, energetic, adventurous, positive emotions, warmth, outgoing  Agreeableness – trust (forgiving), straightforwardness, warm, not stubborn, modest, sympathetic  Neuroticism – anxiety, angry hostility, depression, shy, moody, vulnerable, low self confidence, impulsive Slicing up the personality pie (Wiggins, 1979) • Trait Term Trait Domain • aggressive interpersonal trait (interaction) • miserly (save$) material trait • lively temperamental trait (alone or interpersonal) • ceremonious social role trait • dishonest character trait • analytical mental predicates. • No agreement Using Traits to Predict Behaviour  Mischel--traits are basically useless for predicting behaviour. o Hartshorne and May tested honesty of children, given opportunity to lie, steal and cheat in a number of different settings – and result in all situations were loosely related – deceive in certain situations but not in others o Eg child candy experiment  Solutions:  improve the measurement accuracy  predict behaviours over whole class of situations  traits have different values  interaction between “traits & traits” and “traits& situations” Self-Monitoring: tendency to change their behavior according to the situations  High in self monitoring: attentive to situational cues, adapt behavior to most appropriate  Extreme self-monitors: behavioral chameleons, act differently in different situations  Low self-monitors: act primarily in terms of internal beliefs and attitudes rather than demands of situations – greater consistency across situations Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) o (Consistency paradox – people’s consistency in behavior is surprisingly low – does situation matter?)  Mischel & Shoda  In which both the person and the situation matter  Dynamic interplay between the characteristics of a person (encoding strategies, expectancies, beliefs, goals, emotion, self- regulatory processes) and characteristics of situation  If..then..behaviour consistencies: consistency in behavior, but found within similar situations o Eg if angry at friend, then become aggressive, If angry at boss, then withdraw o Eg consistent when behaving with all friends, but different with grandmother Psychodynamic Perspective - Freud  Studied patients suffering from conversion hysteria: symptoms include paralysis, sudden blindness, but have no physical cause  He was convinced that symptoms were related to painful memories and feelings that have been repressed: pushed out of consciousness  An unconsciousness part of the mind exerts great influence on behavior, using hypnosis, free association (saying whatever comes to mind) and dream analysis  Views personality to be an energy system: instinctual drives generate psychic energy: mind constantly presses for either direct or indirect release eg buildup of energy from sexual drives might discharge directly in form of sexual activity or indirectly through sexual fantasies  Psychosexual development: Children pass through psychosexual stages which id’s pleasure seeking are focused around pleasure sensitive areas of body called erogenous zones. Mental events are:  Conscious: presently aware of - eg what we see/feel/think  Preconscious: unaware of at the moment but can be called into conscious awareness - eg memories in pictures  Unconscious: beyond awareness, cannot remember, discharged in ways such as dreams, slip of tongue, disguised behavior Structure of personality  Id: exist within unconscious mind, present at birth, source of all psychic energy o Operating according to pleasure principle: seeks immediate gratification –“want .. take!”  Ego: at conscious level, operating according to reality principle: test reality and decide when id can discharge safely o Mediate between demands of id, constraints of superego, and demands of reality  Superego: moral arm of personality, develop around age 4-5, with norms and values o What’s right and wrong, and how a child should be o While ego tries to delay gratification until it is safe, superego ties to block
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