Textbook Notes (367,974)
Canada (161,538)
Psychology (934)
PSYC 102 (121)

Psyc102a - Ch2 - Research Methods.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 102
Russell Day

Psychology 102 Chapter 2: Studying Behaviour Scientifically Different Methods--Different Conclusions!  People Perceive Situations Subjectively  People Remember Situations Subjectively  People Jump to Incorrect Conclusions Science ☺  Measurement and Description (needs to be precise and base on common metric)  Understanding and Prediction  Application and Control  Types of Explanation (round argument, caution labelling) Steps in the Scientific Process Step 1: Identify a Question. Curiosity. Ask a question of interest. Step 2: Gather Information and Form Hypothesis. usually in an “IF-THEN” statement. Step 3: Test Hypothesis. Design study, collect data. Operational Definition. Step 4: Analyze data and interpret findings. Does findings support/refute theory? Step 5: Ask further questions, conduct more research, develop and test theories. Are replications possible by you or others? Operational Definition: defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it  Variable may mean differently to different people, so variables must be define clearly. So scientists define variables operationally.  Operational definitions translate abstract concepts into something observable and measureable. Eg self-esteem test score Ethnical Principles in Research Five Broad Ethnical Principles 1. Beneficence: seeking to benefit other people 2. Responsibility: performing professional duties with utmost care 3. Integrity: being honest and accurate in conducting experiment/recording 4. Justice: enhancing all people’s access to the benefits of psychological knowledge. (Everyone gets a chance to participate, get access to result) 5. Respect: respecting people’s dignity and rights to confidentiality and self-determination Informed Consent Before people agree to participate in research, they should be informed about: 1. The study’s purpose and procedures 2. The study’s potential benefits 3. Potential risks to participants 4. The right to decline participation and withdraw at any time without penalty 5. Whether responses will be confidential and, if not, how privacy will be safeguarded. Deception Is when participants are misled about the nature of a study. 1. Violates the principle of informed consent, but may be the only way to obtain natural responses. 2. Deception is only permitted if there are no other alternation available 3. Study must have scientific, educational, or applied benefits that clearly outweigh the ethical costs of deceiving participants 4. Requires adequate debriefing 5. True purpose of study must be revealed to participants after its over Ethics of Animal Research  7-8% of all psychological research  Animals must be treated humanely  Study goals, procedures and benefits must be clearly explained and defined  Benefits must outweigh costs, only allowed if no other alternative is available (research must be reviewed and approved before conducting)  Debate remains controversial Types of Research A. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: Recording Events  collect data in natural setting, non-experimental, non-invasive, not manipulated.  Accurate & systematic measurement  Increases awareness of multiple variables 1. Case Study  an in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or event  Does not allow cause and effect, little generalizability, researcher’s subjective interpretation 2. Naturalistic Observation  observe behaviour as it occurs in a natural setting, and avoid influencing that behavior. Example: school bullying  Advantages: can provide detailed information about the nature, frequency and context of naturally occurring behaviours.  Disadvantages: cannot establish cause-effect relations, bias, researcher presence. 3. Survey Research  data is obtained by administering questionnaires or interviews to a population  Representative sample: one that reflects the important characteristics of the population  To draw valid conclusions about a population from the result of a survey, the sample must be  representative. Eg Use method of random sampling: every member of population has an equal probability of being chosen to participate in the survey  Advantage: a properly selected, representative sample usually yields accurate information about a broader population  Disadvantage: cause and effect, reliance on self-report (social desirability bias), might not be representative, obtaining a representative sample (volunteer bias, random sample?) B. CORRELATION RESEARCH: Measuring associations between events  Measures the relationship between variables  Variables are not manipulated but measured  statistically determines whether X and Y are related Advantages of Correlational Research  Application of lab results to the real‐world  Exploration of variables before conducting lab studies  Allows study of variables that might not otherwise be ethical in the lab (how religious vs. personality)  Allows us to make predictions about behaviour Disadvantages of Correlational Research  Correlation does not imply causation, due to:  Bi-directionality (two way causality). Did X cause Y or did Y cause X or did they both influence each other?  Third Variable Problem: Z is responsible for the relationship between X and Y C. EXPERIMENTS: Examining cause and effect  a research method in which the investigator m
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 102

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.