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Psyc102a - Ch12 - Development.docx

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PSYC 102
Russell Day

Psychology 102 Chapter 12 Development over the Lifespan DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY ISSUES AND METHODS The study of the biological cognitive and behavioural changes from conception to deathSome issues1 Nature and Nurture to what extent is our development the product of heredity nature or the product of environment nurture How do nature and nurture interact 2 Critical and sensitive periods are some experiences especially important at particular age Critical period an age range in which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normallySensitive period optimal age range for certain experience If forced may even slow down development but still possible 3 Statescontinuity vs stages discontinuity is development gradual and continuous or is it progressing through each stages like a caterpillar emerges from cocoon to a butterflyWe are using statesThey address these issues by plotting functions of how processes change with age A No changeability at birth that remains constant across life timeeg figure ground perception B Continuous changeability not at birth but develop gradually over time eg certain intelligence C Stagesability that progress in stages from lower level to higher level eg baby roll craw stand walk D Inverted Ushaped functionstart at birth better with age peaks and disappear when older eg accurate eyesight E Ushaped functionability that is there at birth disappears temporarily and remerges later eg walking with supportResearch designsCrosssectional design compare people of different ages at the same time different age groupcohortsLongitudinal design repeatedly test same cohort as it grows olderSequential design combines both repeatedly test several cohorts as they grow olderPRENATL DEVELOPMENT 1 Germinal stage 12 weeks of developmentBegins when sperm fertilizes an egg o Fertilized egg is called zygoteHomozygous means you have identical alleles for a trait like one dominant allele from each of your parents for a certain trait Eg BB or bbHeterozygous means you have different alleles for a trait like one dominant allele from your father and one recessive allele from your mother for a certain trait Eg Bb o Thru repeated cell division zygote becomes a mass of cells that attaches to uterus 2 Embryonic stage 28 weeks cell bassembryo 3 Fetal stage after 9 weeks embryofetus o After 28 weeks attain age of viability meaning it can survive outside wombGenetics and Sex determinationGenotype genetic structure what we get in basic generic structurePhenotypeoutward appearance how the genetic code is interpreted with the environmentFemale and male cells give 23 chromosomes eachrd Zygote has 23 pairs of chromosomes The 23 pair of chromosomes determines the babys sexrd The 23 from mom is always X so if dads sperm is an X child will be female XX if a Ythen child will be born male XYY chromosomes contain a specific gene TDF testis determining factor gene that triggers male sexual developmentBlood supply if too high in certain hormones can alter sexual differences in child o Androgens help male pattern of organ development o If a boy lack it may create a girlish boyEnvironmental InfluencesSalamander cell from thigh to mouth cellular environment determines what itll do Eg stem cellTeratogens environmental agents that lead to birth defects Eg alcohol mercury lead radiation o Fetal alcohol syndrome FASsevere abnormalities that results from prenatal exposure to alcohol
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