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Chapter 4

PSYC 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Erik Erikson, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Frontal Lobe


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 102
Professor
A.George Alder
Chapter
4

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1. Accomodation Adapting one's current understandings
(schemas) to incorporate new information
(realizing a horse isn't a dog)
2. Adolescence The transition period between childhood
to adulthood, extending from puberty to
independence
3. Alzheimer's
Disease
A progressive and irreversible brain
disorder characterized by gradual
deterioration of memory reasoning,
language, and physical funtioning
4. Assimmilation Interpreting one's new experience in terms
of one's existing schemas (calling a horse a
dog)
5. Attachment An emotional tie with another person;
show in young children by their seeking
closeness to their caregiver and showing
distress on separation
6. Authoritation Parents that impose rules and expect
obedience (correlates with social
competence/skills)
7. Authoritative Demanding, but responsive to their
children
8. Basic Trust According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the
world is predictable and trustworthy; said
to be formed during infancy by
appropriate experiences with responsive
caregivers
9. Cognition All the mental activities associated with
thinking, knowing, remembering, and
communicating
10. Critical Period A limited time shortly after birth during
which an organism must be exposed to
certain experiences if it is to develop
properly
11. Cross-Sectional
Study
A study in which people of different ages
are compared with one another
12. Crystallized
Intelligence
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal
skills; tends to increase with age
13. Dementia Mental erosion caused by a series of small
strokes, brain tumor, or alcoholism
14. Describe
changes in
sensory
abilities and
health in older
adults
- Immune system weakens, short term
illnesses decrease (more immunity due to
age), however, more vulnerable to life-
threatening disease (cancer)
- Brain shrinks (but exercise can slow this
down)
15. Describe some
developmental
changes in a
child's brain
Between ages 3-6, growth occurs most in
the frontal lobes (planning)
- Development later occurs in association
areas of the cortex, enabling thinking,
memory, and language
16. Describe the
union of sperm
and egg at
coneption
At fertilization, only one sperm can
penetrate the outer coating of the g before
the egg's surface blocks out all others
- Within 12 hours, the nuclei of the sperm
and egg fuse into a single cell
17. Developmental
Psychologists
A branch of psychology that studies
physical, cognitive, and social change
throughout the life span
18. Discuss the
course of
prenatal
development
The zygote's cells become increasingly
diverse. After 10 days, the outer part of the
cell mass attaches to the mother's uterine
wall, and inner cells become the embryo,
where major organs begin to form. After 9
weeks, organism becomes a fetus and
continues to develop and grow
19. Dishabituation Engaged/surprised in new stumili (used to
study infant cognition)
20. Egocentric In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's
difficulty taking another's point of view
21. Embryo The developing human organism from
about 2 weeks after fertilization through the
second month (attaches to uterine wall,
organs develop)
22. Erikson's
Stages of
Psychosocial
Development
Proposed we pass through 3 stages in life:
1. Infancy (0-1): Trust vs Mistrust
2. Toddlerhood (1-2): Autonomy vs Shame
(and doubt)
3. Preschool (3-5) Initiative vs Guilt
4. Elementary (6-puberty): Competence vs
Inferiority
5. Adolescence (teens-20s): Identity vs Role
confusion
6. Young adults (20s-40s): Intimacy vs
Isolation
7. Mid Adults (40s-60s): Generativity vs
Stagnation-(failure to contribute)
8. Late Adult (60s+): Integrity vs Dispair
23. Explain the
process and
importance of
identity
achievement
- Some adapt identity of peers, some of
parents
- Increases self-esteem and forming of
close relationships
24. Fetal Alcohol
Syndrome
(FAS)
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in
children caused by a pregnant women's
heavy drinking. Severe cases include
noticeable facial misproportions
AP Psychology Chapter 4
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