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Chapter 8

PSYC 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Ap Psychology, Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning

Course Code
PSYC 102
A.George Alder

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1. Acquisition The initial stage in classical
conditioning; the phase associating
a neutral stimulus with an
unconditioned stimulus so that the
neutral stimulus with an
unconditioned stimulus so that the
neural stimulus comes to elicit a
conditioned response
- In operant conditioning, the
straightening of a reinforced
2. Antisocial Behaviour Negative, unhelpful behaviour
3. Associative Learning Learning to associate two stimuli
(classical conditioning) or a
response and its consequences
(operant conditioning)
4. Behaviourism The view that psychology 1- should
be an objective science that 2-
studies behaviour without
reference to mental processes.
- Most people today believe 1 but
not 2
5. Bobo doll Kids observe woman punching doll
and imitate the same aggressive
6. Classical Conditioning A type of learning where an
organism comes to associate
stimuli (Also called Pavlovian or
respondent conditioning)
7. Cognitive Map A mental representation of the
layout of one's environment (rats
exploring amaze navigate faster
the second time)
8. Conditioned/Secondary
Reinforcers we learned to
associate with more basic rewards,
such as money)
9. Conditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, the
learned response to a previously
neutral (but not conditioned)
stimulus (CS)
10. Continuous
The desired response is reinforced
every time it occurs (learning=
rapid, extinction= fast)
11. Delayed Reinforcer Delayed (often better) rewards
such as a weekly paycheck
12. Describe the timing
requirements for the
initial learning of a
Classical conditioning occurs most
readily when a CS is presented just
before (ideally 0.5 seconds) a US,
preparing the organism fro the
upcoming event
13. Discrimination In classical conditioning, the learned
ability to distinguish between a
conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do
not signal an unconditioned stimulus
- The ability to perceive and respond to
differences among stimuli.
14. Extinction The diminishing of a conditioned
response; occurs in classical
conditioning where an unconditioned
stimulus (US) does no follow a
conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in
operant conditioning when a response is
no longer reinforced
15. Extrinsic
A desire to perform a behaviour due to
promised rewards or threats of
16. Fixed-Interval
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement
schedule that reinforces a response only
after a specified time has elapsed (what
are some examples? paycheck?)
17. Fixed-ration
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement
schedule that reinforces a response only
after a specified number of responses
18. Generaliztion The tendency, once a response has been
conditioned, for stimuli similar to the
conditioned stimulus to elicit similar
19. How can shaping
increase our
understanding of
what nonverbal
animals and
babies can
Because nonverbal animals/babies can
respond to only what they perceive,
their reactions demonstrate which events
they can discriminate
20. Immediate
Offers immediate reward after wanted
behaviour (nicotine addict's cigarette)
21. Intrinsic
A desire to perform a behaviour for its
own sake
22. Latent Learning Learning that occurs but is not apparent
until there is an incentive to demonstrate
- Shows we can learn from experience
without apparent reinforcement
23. Law of Effect Thorndike's principle that behaviours
followed by favourable consequences
become more likely, and that behaviours
followed by unfavourable consequences
become less likely
24. Learning A relatively permanent change in an
organism's behaviour due to experience
AP Psychology Chapter 8
Study online at quizlet.com/_1yh8xa
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