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Psych 102: Treatment of Psychological Disorders.doc

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PSYC 102
Brooke Seal

PSYC 102: Introduction to Psychology Part II Chapter 17: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Perspective Therapies Types/ Features P SYCHODYNAMIC : Psychoanalysis • Free Association (uncensored, verbalized (Freud) thoughts/ feelings/ memories, etc that come to awareness) -behaviour is a product of unconscious processes • Dream Interpretation -emphasize understanding the Brief -more focussed & active fashion: client/ therapist maladaptive influences of the past on Psychodynamic face e/o & conversation replaces free association current patterns of self-defeating -focus is to deal with current or specific life behaviours Therapies problems, not a rebuilding of personality -emphasis on patient gaining self-insight -less focus on childhood & resolution of repressed feelings -therapist interprets avoidance patterns (Resistance & Transference) H UMANISTIC : Client-Centred -the important ingredient in therapy is the Therapy (Rogers) relationship b/w the therapist & client: -humans are capable of controlling their 1) Unconditional positive regard actions and taking responsibility for their 2) Empathy choices & behaviour 3) Genuineness -humans are basically good, and if they 4) Non-directive approach are understood and valued, they will 5) Active Listening grow on their own Gestalt Therapy -imaginative techniques to get clients to ‘get in -goal of optimal functioning in person:Perls) touch with inner selves’ “organized whole” -ppl’s tendancy is to focus only on the ‘part’ of self-acceptance/ awareness/ reliance/ the whole picture, so important feelings/ wishes/ realization and thoughts are blocked from awareness b/c -pathology derives from attempting to they evoke anxiety earn others’ positive regard -more active & dramatic • Empty chair technique (role-playing) C OGNITIVE : Rational- • ABCD Model: Emotive A : activating event that triggers the emotion -focus on the role of irrational and sTherapy (Ellis) defeating thought patterns B : belief system that underlies the way the -therapist helps clients discover and person appraises the event; activated by A. C : emotional and behavioural consequences of change the cognitions that underlie their that appraisal; produced by B. problems; identification of beliefs/ideas/ D: disputing, or challenging, an erroneous belief self-statements that trigger maladaptive system (B). emotions & behaviours The therapist helps the patient to identify the Cognitive warped thinking and to learn more realistic ways Applications: depression, anxiety Therapy (Beck) to reformulate the experience. It’s the thoughts disorders, anger to the situation that cause one’s maladaptive emotional reactions, not the situation itself. 1 PSYC 102: Introduction to Psychology Part II Chapter 17: Treatment of Psychological Disorders B EHAVIOURAL : Classical -reduces or deconditions anxiety responses; Conditioning conditions new responses •Exposure: Extinction Approach -denial of inner/unconscious dynamics Treatments (exposure to the feared CS in the presence of 1) behaviour disorders are learned in t(Skinner) the UCS while using ‘response prevention’ to same way normal behaviours are learned 2) maladaptive behaviours can be CS- conditioned prevent avoidance) unlearned by classical & operant stimulus •Systematic desensitization: conditioning UCS-unconditioned Counterconditioning Approach (where a stimulus new response that is incompatible with [anxiety] is conditioned to the anxiety-arousing Applications: schizophrenia, anxiety CR-conditioned CS; involves training the skill of voluntary disorders, behavioural problems response (children & adults) in psychiatric UCR-unconditioned muscle relaxation, then constructing a hospitals, schools, businesses, prisons, ‘stimulus heirarchy’) response •Aversion Therapy (pairing an attractive and home environments stimulus (alcohol, pedophilia) that stimulates CS+UCS= CR maladaptive behaviour (CS) with a noxious UCS (nausea, or shock) to condition an aversion to the CS (CR)) Operant •Positive Reinforcement (use of token Conditioning economy and self-reinforcement processes (i.e. Treatments: self-pride) rather than tangible reinforcers like Behaviour food)
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