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Chapter 12

CHAPTER 12 KEYWORDS.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 102
Professor
Russell Day
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYCHOLOGY KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS – CHAPTER 12  Accommodation: the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change  Adolescence: the period of development and gradual transition between childhood and adulthood  Adolescent egocentrism: highly self-focused thinking, particularly in the earlier teenage years  Assimilation: in cognitive development, the process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas  Attachment: the strong emotional bond that develops between children and their primary caregivers  Auditory habituation procedure: type of study in which the same sound stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines  Authoritarian parents: caregivers who exert control over their children but do so within a cold, responsive, or rejecting relationship  Authoritative parents: caregivers who are controlling but warm; they establish and enforce clear rules within a caring, supportive atmosphere  Cephalocaudal principle: the tendency for physical development to proceed in a head to food direction  Concrete operational stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development during which children can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible objects and situations  Conservation: the principle that basic properties of objects, such as their mass or quantity, stay the same (are ‘conserved’) even though their outward appearance may change  Conventional moral reasoning: moral judgements that are based on conformity to social expectations, laws, and duties  Critical period: a time period in which exposure to particular kinds of stimulation (ex. perceptual) is required for normal development to occur  Cross-sectional design: a research design that simultaneously compares people of different ages at a particular point in time  Egocentrism: difficulty in viewing the world from someone else’s perspective  Embryo: scientific term for the prenatal organism during the second week through the eighth week after conception  Emotional regulation: the processes by which we evaluate and modify our emotional reactions  Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): a severe group of abnormalities that result from prenatal exposure to alcohol  Fetus: the scientific term for the prenatal organism from the ninth week after conception until birth  Formal operational stage: in Piaget’s theory, a period in which individuals are able to think logically and systematically about both concrete and abstract problems, form hypotheses, and test them in a thoughtful way  Gender constancy: the understanding that being male or female is a permanent part of a person  Gender identity: the sense of ‘femaleness’ or ‘maleness’ that is an integral part of our identity  Imprinting: in some species, a sudden, biologically primed form of attachment  Indulgent parents: caregivers who have warm and caring relationships with their children but do not provide much guidance and discipline  Longitudinal design: research that repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older  Maturation: a genetically programmed, biological process that governs our growth  Neglectful parents: care
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