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PSYC 102 (121)
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Frontiers and Applications Notes.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 102
Professor
Russell Day
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter 1 October1110103 PMPsychology 1000 Chapter 1 NotesDiscovery of BrainBehaviour RelationsLuigi Galvani performed an experiment with frog leg and electricity and discovered that brain signals were electrical in natureKarl Lashley created lesions in specific parts of the brain to study its effect on memory and learningJames Olds and Peter Milner of McGill University discovered that certain areas of the brain gave animals pleasurable sensationsEEG 1929 allowed researchers to measure brain activity in certain areas of the brainBiochemical research shows that the brains electrical activity is controlled by chemicals released by nerve cellsThese are known as neurotransmittersoEvolution and Behaviour From Darwin to Evolution PsychologyHumans exist because of our ancestors ability to adapt to a changing hostile environmentDarwins Evolutionary TheoryDarwin proposed that species evolve over time as a response to environmental conditions in a process called natural selectionAny inheritable characteristic that enhances survival will be maintainedHis work was inspired by a 5 year trip to South America and was published in his book On the Origin ofSpeciesModern Evolutionary PsychologyAn organisms biology determines its behavioural capabilities and its behaviorOne theory is that evolutionary pressures force human beings to learn think reason and socialize more effectivelySociobiology however states that complex social behaviours are also built into the human species as a product of evolutionIt states that behavior that likens the chance of passing on offsprings are also favoredoThis includes aggression competition and dominance in malesreproduce often during their lifetimeBehaviour GeneticsBehaviour genetics is the study of how behvaioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factorsEg Fighting fish are bred by mating very bright and aggressive pairsoEg Identical twins have similar behavior compared to fraternal twinsoCognitive Perspective The viewpoint where humans are problem solvers whose actions are governed by thoughts and planningConcerned with how information is perceived and organized in our mindsOrigins of the Cognitive PerspectiveTitchener and Wundt approach was known as Structuralism because they analyzed the mind in terms of its basic elements Psych 1000 My Notes Page 1 terms of its basic elementsThey believed that sensations are the basic elements of consciousness and they studied it by using introspectionStructuralism eventually died out and gave way to functionalism which studies the functions of consciousnessGestalt psychology was concerned with how elements of experience are organized into a wholeit argues that the sum of all perceptions is greater than and different from the individual opartsKohler is a leader in this field and studied Animals on the Canary Islands during WWIoHe concluded that the ability to perceive relationships is the essence of intelligence and othat insight is the perception of a useful relationship or solution to a problem an aHA momentEg Kohler placed a banana out of reach of an ape but put a box near the ape The ape figured out how to use the box to reach the banana Piaget Cognitive development in childrenPiaget spent 50 years studying how children think reason and solve problemsPiaget concluded that new and specific stages of cognitive development unfold naturally as children matureCognitive approaches to psychological disordersAlbert Ellis and Aaron Beck tried to understand how mental distortions and irrational thoughts patterns create emotional problemsDistress and maladaptive behavior is not only caused by external factors but by the way we think about the situationsModern Cognitive ScienceArtificial intelligence develops computer models of complex human thought reasoning and problem solvingBy creating models that duplicate natural cognitive process a better understanding of how humans think can be gainedEg There are computerized medical diagnostic systems that are based on the thought oprocess of eminent physiciansHebb wrote a book called The organization of behavior A neuropsychological theoryorepeated usage is associated in carrying out responses more effectively practice makes perfectSocial ConstructivismSocial Constructivism claims that a large part of what people consider reality is a large part of our mental creationA little part of shared reality exists Psychodynamic Perspective The Forces WithinPsychodynamic perspective searches for the causes of behavior within the workings of our personality and the role of unconscious processesEg Doing something out of character and something that you were not meaning to do in othe first placeFreud emphasized the role of complex psychological forces that control human behaviorHe focused on the treatment of hysteria a psychological disorder in which physical symptoms such as blindness pain or paralysis develop without any physical woesHe uses hypnosis and free association to treat his patients and his patients tell him about oforgotten instances of childhood sexual abuseHe concluded that his patients were prompted to create these fantasies by a compelling and unsatisfied sexual drive that is a universal aspect of human natureFreud believes that much of human behavior is influenced by forces which humans are unawareFreud claims that our childhood has a significant impact on our adult personalitiesFreud suspected that because some of our early sexual needs are punished we learn to fearPsych 1000 My Notes Page 2 Freud suspected that because some of our early sexual needs are punished we learn to fear them and become anxious when we become aware of their presenceThese anxieties are coped with through defense mechanismsoOne of the most important is repression which protects us by keeping impulses feelings oand memories in the unconscious part of the mindThey remain there as a source of energy striving for releaseoSome of Freuds research was contradicted and some others were validatedIt helped stimulate the development of new theories as well as promote new researchoCurrent DevelopmentsScientists working within the biological perspective have identified brain mechanisms that can produce emotional reactions of which we are consciously unawareCognitive scientists have shown that many aspects of information processing occur outside of our awarenessBehavioural Perspective The Power of the EnvironmentFocuses on the role of the external environment in shaping and governing our actionsPeoples behavior is jointly determined by learned habits from their life experience or from their immediate environmentOrigins of the Behavioural PerspectivethBehavioural perspective comes from a 17century school of philosophy known as British empiricismAll ideas and knowledge are gained empirically through the sensesoHumans are a blank sheet of paper and is differentiated by experienceoBehaviourismBehaviourism is a school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behavior through learningJohn B Watson was against structuralists functionalists and psychoanalysts and argued that proper psychology should be based on observable actionsStructuralists believe that one is only influenced by outside forces and not their innate tendencies Behaviourists do not focus on whatoutsideBF Skinner was a famous behaviouristBehaviour modification is possible by altering the environmental factors that stimulate behaviorCognitive BehaviourismCognitive Behaviourism is an attempt to combine behavioural and cognitive perspectives to make a more comprehensive theoryThis theory states that the environment gives us the knowledge to behave effectivelyEg If we see someone do something effective we store it in our memory and use it for olater The Humanistic Perspective Freedom and SelfActualizationHumanistic perspective emphasizes a persons innate tendencies toward growth and to find ultimate meaning in existenceIt emphasizes the role of the internal thought processoHumanists believe that every person strives toward selfactualization personal potential Psych 1000 My Notes Page 3
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