PSYC 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Rorschach Test, Thematic Apperception Test, Twin

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Chapter 12 Study Guide
Psychology 102
Personality:
An individuals characteristic style of thinking, behaving and feeling.
Personality differences are concerned with:
1. prior events: shape individuals personality (e.g., genes)
2. anticipated events: might motivate the person to reveal particular personality characteristics.
Obtaining Objective Data on Personality:
Self-Report: the most popular method in which people provide subjective information about their own
thoughts, feelings, or behaviours, typically via questionnaire or interview.
Minnesota Multigvphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):
-One of the most commonly used tests
-Developed in the 1940’s
-A well researched, clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems.
-550 Statements
-True, false, cannot say.
Hypomania: High levels of excitement.
Pschasthenia: How much worry and anxiety.
Psychopathic Deviate: Emotionally shallow.
Projective Techniques:
Tests designed to reveal inner aspects of individuals personalities by analysis of their response to a
standard set of ambiguous stimuli.
—The individual will show the wishes, concerns, impulses and ways of seeing the world.—
Rorschach Inkblot Test:
a projective technique in which respondents inner thoughts and feelings are believed to be revealed by
analysis of their responses to a set of unstructured ink blots.
Thematic Apperception Test:
A projective technique in which respondents underlying motives, concerns and the way they see the
social world are believed to be revealed through analysis of the stories they make up about ambiguous
pictures of people.
Traits:
A relatively stable disposition to behave in a certain way. Traits describe someones behaviour but does
not explain it.
Traits as Behavioural Dispositions and Motives:
-Gordon Allport (1937) (Trait theoritst): Saw traits as pre-existing dispositions, causes of behaviour that
reliably trigger the behaviour.
-Henry Murray (inventor of TAT): traits are reflect motives.
The Search For Core Traits:
-Core traits are represented in language
-Researchers use factor analysis to try and discover the core of personality traits.
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THE BIG 5 Dimension of Personality (OCEAN):
(This mode overlaps withe the pioneering work of Cattell and Eysenck)
Why OCEAN is preferred now:
1. Factor analysis techniques confirm that these 5 factors strikes the balance between accounting for as
much variability in personality as possible while avoiding overlapping traits.
2. These same 5 factors keep emerging in other data
3. The basic five factor structure has shown up across a wide range of participants. (in different cohorts,
cultures and languages) possibly making it universal.
Traits as Biological Building Blocks:
-Brain damage, brain pathologies and medication can produce personality change.
MORE TWINS:
Once again scientists study identical and fraternal twins and calculate their personality correlations.
(Same variables as intelligence chapter e.g., shared environment)
-Reared apart identical twins end up just as similar in personality as those who grow up together.
-There more genes you have in common with someone the more likely you are to have a similar
personality
-Currently the average genetic component of personality is placed in the range of .40 - .60.
Animals and Personalties:
anthropomorphize: giving human qualities to non-human animals.
Big 5 Traits seen in animals: neuroticism (fearful, emotional reactivity), openness to experience (curiosity),
and agreeableness (absence of aggression).
Traits in the Brain:
Eysenck: introversion and extraversion may result from result from differences in cortical arousal or
alertness.
Behavioural Activation System (BAS): “go” system. It activates approach behaviour in response to the
anticipation of a reward. // Extroverts = high reactive BAS.
High on Trait……………………….…Low on Trait
Openness To Experience
-Imaginative -Down to Earth
-Variety -Routine
-Independence -Conforming
Conscientiousness
-Organized -Disorganized
-Careful -Careless
-Self Disciplined -Weak Willed
Extraversion
-Social -Retiring
-Fun Loving -Sober
-Affectionate -Reserved
Agreeableness
-Soft Hearted -Ruthless
-Trusting -Suspicious
-Helpful -Uncooperative
Neuroticism
-Worried -Calm
-Insecure -Secure
-Self Pitying -Self Satisfied
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Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS): “stop” system. Inhibits behaviour in response to stimuli signalling
punishment. // Anxious person = high BIS reactivity (Focus on negative outcomes)
SIGMON FREUD:
Freudian Slips: Freud’s interpretations of the origins of an individuals everyday mistakes and and
memory lapses.
Psychoanalysis: Freud’s term used to refer to him theory of personality and his method of treating
patients.
Psychodynamic Approach: An approach that regards personality as formed by needs, strivings, and
desires largely operating outside of awareness—motives that can produce emotional disorders. (In other
words: the real engines of personality are forces of which we are relatively unaware of)
Dynamic Unconscious: An active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person’s
deepest instincts and desires, and the person inner struggle to control those forces (on going struggle).
The mind consists of 3 independent, interacting, and often conflicting systems:
1. id: The most basic system. The part of the mind containing the drives present at birth; it is the source
of our bodily needs, wants, desires, impulses, particularly our sexual and aggressive drives. The id
operates according to the pleasure principle (the force that motivates us to seek immediate
gratification of any impulse).
2. Superego: Opposite of the id. The mental system that reflects the internalization of cultural rules,
mainly learned as parents exercise their authority. Consists of a set of guidelines, standards and
code of conduct that regulate and control our behaviours. “Our conscious”
3. Ego: The component of personality, developed through contact with the external world, that enables
us to deal with life’s practical demands. The ego operates according to the reality principle (the
regulating mechanism that enables us to delay immediate gratification needs to allow us to function
in reality). The ego is like the mediator between the id and superego.
-These three factors working together creates personality
-Dynamics among the three factors are primarily governed by anxiety.
Defensive Mechanisms: unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from
unacceptable impulses.
Repression is the first defence the ego tries, if it doesn't work then other mechanisms may come into play.
Defensive Mechanism:
Description
Example
Repression
Removing painful experiences
and unacceptable impulses from
the conscious mind. “motivated
forgetting”
Not lashing out physically in
anger; putting a bad experience
out of your mind.
Rationalization
Supplying a reasonable
sounding explanation for
unacceptable feelings and
behaviours to conceal (mostly
from yourself) one’s underlying
motives or feelings.
Dropping calculus allegedly
because of poor ventilation in the
class room.
Defensive Mechanism:
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