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Chapter 10

PSYC 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Psychometrics

Course Code
PSYC 102
A.George Alder

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Intelligence: the ability to acquire knowledge, think and reason effectively, and deal adaptively with the environment
However, the families he studied were all from privileged environments.
Believed that genius/eminence was hereditary
Tried to prove his case through biological means (measuring reaction speed, hand strength, sensory acuity, etc) But people were like
bitchplz but what about academic/occupational/social success?
Sir Francis Galton
Ex: person with mental age of 8yrs can complete the same intellectual tasks as the average 8yr old child.
7 yr old should be able to understand 'left' and 'right', describe a picture, count the value of 6 coins, and carry out commands
given in a sequence.
15 yr old should be able to find 3 rhymes for a word/min, repeat 7 digits, interpret a set of facts, repeat a 26-syllable sentence.
Mental age - measure of the developmental level on which a person is functioning
Alfred Binet was hired by the French government to create a standard intelligence test.
Goddard translates Simon-Binet test into english in 1908.
Terman develops Simon-Binet test in 1916
Uses mental age and chronological age
IQ = MA/CA*100
Ex: if a 20-yr old's MA was equal to an 80-yr old, then their mental age would be 400 o_o
Today's test no longer use mental age
Intelligence quotient (IQ) derived by William Stern (1914)
Affects 3-5% of US population
Classified into 4 levels of severity based on IQ scores (mild, moderate, severe and profound)
Eugenics - US supreme court passed law in 1927 that made sterilization for the 'mentally retarded' compulsory.
Laws out of use by 1963
Mental retardation: subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in everyday living skills, originating before the age of 18.
Giftedness: Top 2-3% of IQ distribution (IQ>130)
IQ extremes:
Factor analysis reduces large numbers of measures to smaller numbers of clusters to make it easier for visual examination of
Psychometrics: statistical study of psychological tests (measurement-based map of the mind)
Psychometric approach aims to map the structure of intellect and discover mental competencies underlying test performance (how people's
Psychometric Theories of intelligence
Ex: Performance in a math course depends on both your general intelligence and your ability to learn mathematics.
G-factor: Charles Spearman's theory that intellectual performance is based on general intelligence and special abilities required to pe rform that
specific task.
Space - Reasoning about visual scenes
Verbal comprehension - understanding verbal statements
Word fluency - producing verbal statements
Number facility - dealing with numbers
Perceptual speed - recognizing visual patterns
Rote memory - memorizing
Reasoning - dealing with novel problems
Primary mental abilities: Thurstone's theory that mental performance depends on seven distinct abilities instead of a general factor. This can
measure strengths and weaknesses in specific areas and can make it easier to enhance specific areas rather than trying to rai se general
Ex: using equations learned in physics to solve a problem
Crystallized intelligence improves during adulthood
Crystallized intelligence: the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems. Depends on long term memory -
required to store knowledge. We depend more on crystallized intelligence as we grow older.
Ex: Tower of Hanoi/orcs and hobbits are fluid intelligence tasks
We depend on fluid intelligence when we are younger - we learn how to approach different situations and store the solution
in long-term memory so it can be recalled via crystallized intelligence.
Fluid intelligence declines as we grow older
Fluid intelligence: the ability to deal with problem solving situations in which personal experience does not provide a solution.
Depends on the ability to think logically and manage info in working (short term) memory so that new problems can be solved.
Crystallized/fluid intelligence: Developed by Cattell and Horn, breaking down general intelligence into two types.
3 levels of mental skills arranged in a hierarchical model - general, broad, and narrow
General (g-factor) is at the top, underlying most mental activity
Broad (crystallized/fluid intelligence and some of Thurstone's abilities)
Narrow is at the bottom, where specific cognitive abilities are found (extensions of the broad spectrum)
Three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities: Carroll's model of mental abilities combining Spearman, Thurstone, and Cattell -Horn's models.
Triarchic theory of intelligence: Sternberg's theory dividing cognitive processes underlying intelligent behaviour into three
Cognitive processes approach studies specific thought processes underlying mental competencies. (why people vary in mental skills)
Two major approaches in the study of intelligence:
January 21, 2013
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