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Chapter 10

PSYC 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Psychometrics


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 102
Professor
A.George Alder
Chapter
10

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Intelligence: the ability to acquire knowledge, think and reason effectively, and deal adaptively with the environment
However, the families he studied were all from privileged environments.
Believed that genius/eminence was hereditary
o
Tried to prove his case through biological means (measuring reaction speed, hand strength, sensory acuity, etc) But people were like
bitchplz but what about academic/occupational/social success?
o
Sir Francis Galton
Ex: person with mental age of 8yrs can complete the same intellectual tasks as the average 8yr old child.
7 yr old should be able to understand 'left' and 'right', describe a picture, count the value of 6 coins, and carry out commands
given in a sequence.
15 yr old should be able to find 3 rhymes for a word/min, repeat 7 digits, interpret a set of facts, repeat a 26-syllable sentence.
Mental age - measure of the developmental level on which a person is functioning
o
Alfred Binet was hired by the French government to create a standard intelligence test.
Goddard translates Simon-Binet test into english in 1908.
Terman develops Simon-Binet test in 1916
Uses mental age and chronological age
o
IQ = MA/CA*100
o
Ex: if a 20-yr old's MA was equal to an 80-yr old, then their mental age would be 400 o_o
Today's test no longer use mental age
o
Intelligence quotient (IQ) derived by William Stern (1914)
Affects 3-5% of US population
o
Classified into 4 levels of severity based on IQ scores (mild, moderate, severe and profound)
o
Eugenics - US supreme court passed law in 1927 that made sterilization for the 'mentally retarded' compulsory.
o
Laws out of use by 1963
o
Mental retardation: subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in everyday living skills, originating before the age of 18.
Giftedness: Top 2-3% of IQ distribution (IQ>130)
IQ extremes:
Factor analysis reduces large numbers of measures to smaller numbers of clusters to make it easier for visual examination of
results.
Psychometrics: statistical study of psychological tests (measurement-based map of the mind)
o
Psychometric approach aims to map the structure of intellect and discover mental competencies underlying test performance (how people's
differ)
Psychometric Theories of intelligence
Ex: Performance in a math course depends on both your general intelligence and your ability to learn mathematics.
o
G-factor: Charles Spearman's theory that intellectual performance is based on general intelligence and special abilities required to pe rform that
specific task.
Space - Reasoning about visual scenes
o
Verbal comprehension - understanding verbal statements
o
Word fluency - producing verbal statements
o
Number facility - dealing with numbers
o
Perceptual speed - recognizing visual patterns
o
Rote memory - memorizing
o
Reasoning - dealing with novel problems
o
Primary mental abilities: Thurstone's theory that mental performance depends on seven distinct abilities instead of a general factor. This can
measure strengths and weaknesses in specific areas and can make it easier to enhance specific areas rather than trying to rai se general
intelligence.
Ex: using equations learned in physics to solve a problem
Crystallized intelligence improves during adulthood
Crystallized intelligence: the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems. Depends on long term memory -
required to store knowledge. We depend more on crystallized intelligence as we grow older.
o
Ex: Tower of Hanoi/orcs and hobbits are fluid intelligence tasks
We depend on fluid intelligence when we are younger - we learn how to approach different situations and store the solution
in long-term memory so it can be recalled via crystallized intelligence.
Fluid intelligence declines as we grow older
Fluid intelligence: the ability to deal with problem solving situations in which personal experience does not provide a solution.
Depends on the ability to think logically and manage info in working (short term) memory so that new problems can be solved.
o
Crystallized/fluid intelligence: Developed by Cattell and Horn, breaking down general intelligence into two types.
3 levels of mental skills arranged in a hierarchical model - general, broad, and narrow
o
General (g-factor) is at the top, underlying most mental activity
o
Broad (crystallized/fluid intelligence and some of Thurstone's abilities)
o
Narrow is at the bottom, where specific cognitive abilities are found (extensions of the broad spectrum)
o
Three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities: Carroll's model of mental abilities combining Spearman, Thurstone, and Cattell -Horn's models.
Triarchic theory of intelligence: Sternberg's theory dividing cognitive processes underlying intelligent behaviour into three
components:
o
Cognitive processes approach studies specific thought processes underlying mental competencies. (why people vary in mental skills)
Two major approaches in the study of intelligence:
Intelligence
January 21, 2013
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