# PSYC 210 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Morphine, Statistical Inference, Descriptive Statistics

by OC275802

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Introduction

•The word statistics is used in at least 3 different ways”

1. It refers to a set of procedures and rules for reducing large masses of data

to manageable proportions and allowing us to draw conclusions

2. It is used in place of the much better word data (not used so much in

psych)

3. It refers to the result of the same arithmetic or algebraic manipulation

applied to data. Example: mean

•Thus, we have 2 proper terms that you will always be able to tell from context

1. A set of producers and rules

2. The outcome of the application of those rules and procedures to samples

of data

•Important how statistical methods and procedures are used to tie the results of

the same experiments to the hypothesis that led to that experiment

1.1 The importance of context

•Example given of heroin and morphine tolerance and the effects of taking the

same dose in a new environment/setting

1.2 Basic terminology

•Statistical procedures can be separated into roughly two overlapping areas:

descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

Descriptive statistics

•Used whenever your purpose is merely to describe a set of data

•Example a statement about the average length of time it takes a normal mouse to

lick its paw when placed on a warm surface would be a descriptive statistic as

would be the time is takes a morphine injected mouse to do the same thing

•Reporting measures that describe the average latency scores or their variability

•Example rates, summary of information

Inferential statistics

•Small samples or single observations may be fine when we want to study

something that has very little variability

•Example we don’t need a whole heard of cows to count how many legs a cow

has

•However, when we want to measure something that varies from one individual to

another we need a larger sample

•Example change in response

•Important concept in statistics is: VARIABILITY

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