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PSYC 210 (23)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Displaying Order

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 210
Professor
Cathy Mc Farland
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 – Displaying the Order in a Group of Numbers Using Tables and Graphs Statistics – branch of math that focuses on organization, analysis, interpretation of a group of numbers Branches of Statistical Methods 1. Descriptive statistics – summarizes and describes a group of numbers from a research study; makes a group of numbers easily understandable with the help of graphs and tables. (Chapter 1-2) 2. Inferential statistics – draws conclusions and makes inferences that are based on the numbers from a research study but go beyond the numbers; uses “small” data to apply to a larger population. (Remainder of the book) Basic Concepts Variables, Values, and Scores: A group of students answered the question, “How stressed have you been in the last 2.5 weeks?” on a scale of 0- 10, with 0 being not stressed at all and 10 being as stressed as possible. Variable – a condition or characteristic that can have different values “level of stress” Ex: height, social class, type of psychotherapy a patient receives, # of people absent from work Value – possible number or category that a score can have “from 0-10” Ex: any number like 4, -62, 72.15 or a category such as male or female or a medical diagnosis Score – particular person’s value on a variable If I selected 6 as my answer, “6” would be the score. Each person has a particular number or SCORE that is his or her value on the variable. Your score on the stress test above may have been 6; another’s may have been 2. Levels of Measurement (Kinds of Variables): Types of underlying numerical information provided by a measure, such as equal-interval, rank- order, and nominal (categorical) 1. Numeric variable – variable whose values are NUMBERS; in the stress ratings example, the higher the number is, the more stress there is; aka quantitative variable a. Equal-interval variable – variable in which the numbers stand for approximately equal amounts of what is being measured; the difference between a 2.5 and a 2.8 GPA is the same as the difference between a 3.0 and a 3.3 GPA b. Rank-order variable – numeric variable in which the values are ranks, such as class standing or place finished in a race; aka ordinal variable; the amount of difference in underlying GPA between being 2 nd rd th th and 3 in class may not be the same as the different between 8 and 9 in class. Provides less info than an equal-interval variable. 2. Nominal variable – variable with values that are categories (i.e., they’re names, not numbers); aka categorical variable; it is called nominal because the values are names and categorical because their values are categories; for the nominal variable gender, the values are female and male and the scores are one of the two values. Chapter 1 – Displaying the Order in a Group of Numbers Using Tables and Graphs Continuous Discrete vs. variable variable A variable with specific values and that can’t A variable in which there can be ∞ # of have values between those specific values. values between any two values. Ex: You can go to a dentist 2 times a Ex: You can be 20 years old or year but you cannot go 2.72 20.56 years old. Checkpoint: 1. A father rates his daughter as a 2 on a 7-point scale (17) of crankiness. a. What is the variable? Crankiness b. What is the score? 2 c. What is the range of values? 1-7 2. What is the difference between a numeric and a nominal variable? A numeric variable has numbers as values that tell you the extent of what the variable measures, while a nominal variable can include categories or names with no particular numerical order. 3. What is the difference between a discrete and a continuous variable? A discrete variable is concrete. The values cannot have other values in between them. A continuous variable can theoretically have an infinite number of values in between them. Frequency Tables Frequency table – ordered listing of number of individuals having each of the different values for a particular variable. Numeric Variables Frequency Table: X-Value (Test score) Frequency (# of students) 0 2 1 5 2 7 3 8 4 11 5 7 6 3 7 1 Chapter 1 – Displaying the Order in a Group of Numbers Using Tables and Graphs Nominal Variables Frequency Table: 94 students kept a diary of their social interactions for a week during the semester. Each time a student had an interaction lasting 10+ minutes, they would fill out a card with questions about aspects of the conversation and the conversation partner. The numbers of interactions lasting 10+ minutes over a week were as follows: 48, 15, 33, 3, 21, 19, 17, 16, 44, 25, 30, 3, 5, 9, 35, 32, 26, 13, 14, 14, 47, 47, 18, 11, 5, 19, 24, 17, 6, 25, 8, 18, 29, 1, 18, 22, 3, 22, 29, 2, 6, 10, 29, 10, 29, 21, 38, 41, 16, 17, 8, 40, 8, 10, 18, 7, 4, 4, 8, 11, 3, 23, 10, 19, 21, 13, 12, 10, 4, 17, 11, 21, 9, 8, 7, 5, 3, 22, 14, 25, 4, 11, 10, 18, 1, 28, 27, 19, 24, 35, 9, 30, 8, 26 1. Make a list down the page for each possible value, from lowest to highest. 0-48 for this example. 2. Going one-by-one through the scores, tally up how many scores there are per value. 3. Make a table showing how many times each value on the list was used. 4. Calculate the percentage of scores for each value. Frequency Table for Number of Social Interactions During a Week for 94 College Students Score Frequency Score Frequency Score Frequency 0 0 17 3 34 0 1 2 18 4 35 2 2 1 19 3 36 0 3 5 20 0 37 0 4 4 21 4 38 1 5 3 22 3 39 0 6 2 23 1 40 1 7 2 24 2 41 1 8 6 25 3 42 0 9
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