Textbook Notes (363,041)
Canada (158,169)
Psychology (900)
PSYC 221 (62)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Perception and Pattern Recognition

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
PSYC 221
Thomas Spalek

CHAPTER 3 – Perception and Pattern Recognition Lens – focus and inverts light Retina – the layer of the eye covered with the rods and cones that initiate the process of visual sensation and perception  Rods and cones >> bipolar cells >> ganglion cells >> optic nerve >> visual cortex Compression – a kind of transformation that both analyzes and summarizes the visual input Haber and Hershenson: 1. Only a fraction of the original light energy is registered on the retina; the rest is absorbed and scattered by the fluid and structures within the eye 2. The three-layered retina also loses information Fovea – the highly sensitive region of the retina responsible for precise, focused vision • Composed largely of cones o Some of cones have their own private bipolar cells for relaying impulses Peripheral vision – hundreds of rods converge on a single bipolar cell Visual Sensation – the reception of physical stimulation and encoding of it into the nervous system Visual perception – the process of interpreting and understanding sensory information • The act of sensing then interpreting that information • We sense the presence of a stimulus, but we perceive what it is. Gathering visual information Extramission – the belief that vision involves some kind of ray or wave going out from the eyes and toward the object being perceived • Wrong! Vision is triggered when the reflection of light from an object hits our eyes. Saccades – movements that are interrupted by pauses; the voluntary sweeping of the eyes from one fixation point to another • Fixation – the pause during which the eye is almost stationary and is taking in visual information o the visual point on which the eyes focus during the fixation pause o for an entire fixation, 3-4 visual cycles are completed per second o each cycle registers a distinct and separate visual scene  The eye takes in visual information only during stimulus fixation Change blindness – failure to notice changes in visual stimuli when those changes occur during a saccade Inattentional blindness – the failure to see an object we are looking at directly, even a highly visible one, because our attention is directed elsewhere Visual sensory memory – the memory register that receives the visual input from the eyes Visual persistence – the apparent persistence of a visual stimulus beyond its physical duration 1. Something that looks like the physical stimulus continues to be present for a brief period following stimulus offset. 2. Information can be acquired from the stimulus for a brief period following stimulus offset in much the same way as it can be acquired while the stimulus is physically present. Visual sensory memory/ iconic memory – temporary visual buffer that holds visual information for brief periods of time George Sperling – reported the characteristics and processes of visual sensory memory Tachistoscope – an apparatus designed to present visual stimuli in a controlled position for a short period of time usually ms Span of apprehension – the number of individual items recallable after any short display Whole report condition – subjects are to report any letters they can Partial report condition – only one of the rows was to be reported; found better performance  If performance was 76% on any randomly selected row, then the subjects’ visual memory of the entire display must also be around 76% o Suggests that immediately after a visual stimulus is displayed, a great deal of the stimulus information is available in visual sensory memory, much more than could be reported out loud o Performance in the partial report group began to decline as the information in iconic memory began to fade The icon – the visual image that resides in iconic memory Dark preexposure & postexposure fields – lengthened the useful readout period of iconic information when compared with light preexposure and postexposure field Transfer process – the letters to be reported were transferred to the short-term memory system which generated written or spoken response  More auditory errors made rather than visual Losing information: 1. Forgetting was passive process like fading or decay – the passage of time degraded the icon 2. Interference – forgetting cause by the effects of intervening stimulation or mental processing • Happens when a second stimulus is presented right after the first one • Emmaniel Averbach and Abner Coriell experiment – use of visual cue (vertical bar or circle marker)  A later visual stimulus can drastically affect the perception of an earlier one – backward masking  Masking – interferes with the perception of the earlier stimulus presented at the same position  Erasure – the masking, degradation or loss of information caused by subsequent presentation of another stimulus Ralph Haber – claimed that the static icon is quite irrelevant to an unders
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 221

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.