PSYC 221 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Availability Heuristic, Representativeness Heuristic, Mental Model

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28 Nov 2011
Chapter 11 Vocabulary 1
Decisions, Judgments,
and Reasoning
Formal Logic and Reasoning 452
Syllogisms 452
Conditional reasoning: If P Then Q 455
Hypothesis testing 461
Decisions 462
About physical differences 463
About symbolic differences 464
About geographical distances 469
Uncertainty 470
Algorithms and heuristics 471
Heuristics, biases, and fallacies 473
The representativeness heuristic 475
The availability heuristic 479
The simulation heuristic 483
Counterfactual reasoning 484
Adaptive thinking and “fast, frugal” heuristics 488
Limitations in Reasoning 493
Limited domain knowledge 493
Limitations in processing resources 498
Syllogism 453 a classic reasoning form composed of 2 premises and 1 conclusion in which the logical truth of the
conclusion must be derived from the premises
Conditional reasoning 456 the form of reasoning in which logical consequences of an if-then statement and
some evidence are determined; for example, given “If it rains, then the picnic will be cancelled,” the phrase “It is
raining” determines whether the picnic is cancelled.
Antecedent 456the if clause in standard conditional reasoning (if-then) tasks. In the statement “If it rains, then
the picnic will be cancelled,” the antecedent is “If it rains.
Consequent 456 – the then statement; in “If it rains, then the picnic will be cancelled,” the consequent is “then the
picnic will be cancelled.”
Confirmation bias 460 – in reasoning, the tendency to search for evidence that confirms a conclusion
Mental models 462 – the mental representation of a situation or physical device; for example, a person’s mental
model of the physical motion of bodies or a person’s mental model of a thermostat
Psychophysics 464 – the study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the perceived characteristics of
those stimuli; the study of how perceptual experience differs from the physical stimulation that is being perceived
Distance effect or discriminability effect 465 – an effect, seen particularly in RT, in which 2 distant or highly
discriminable stimuli are more easily judged than 2 nearby or less discriminable stimuli; for instance, judgments
are faster to “poor vs. excellent” than to “good vs. excellent”.
Symbolic comparisons 465 – mental comparisons of symbols (e.g., digits), usually in a “choose smaller/larger” task
Symbolic distance effect 465 – the result, in a symbolic comparison task, in which 2 relatively different stimuli
(e.g., 1 and 8) are judged more rapidly than 2 relatively similar stimuli (e.g., 1 and 2) because of greater symbolic
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