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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Decision Making Vocab

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 221
Professor
Thomas Spalek
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 11 Vocabulary 1 Decisions, Judgments, Uncertainty 470 and Reasoning Algorithms and heuristics 471 Heuristics, biases, and fallacies473 Formal Logic and Reasoning 452 The representativeness heuristic 475 Syllogisms 452 The availability heuristic 479 Conditional reasoning: If P Then Q 455 The simulation heuristic 483 Hypothesis testing 461 Counterfactual reasoning 484 Adaptive thinking and “fast, frugal” heuristics 488 Decisions 462 About physical differences 463 Limitations in Reasoning 493 About symbolic differences 464 Limited domain knowledge 493 About geographical distances 469 Limitationsin processing resources 498 Syllogism 453 – a classic reasoning form composed of 2 premises and 1 conclusionin which thelogical truth of the conclusion must be derived from the premises Conditional reasoning 456 – the form of reasoning in whichlogical consequences of an if-then statement and some evidence are determined; for example, given“If it rains, then the picnic will be cancelled,” the phrase “It is raining” determines whether the picnic is cancelled. Antecedent 456 – the if clause in standard conditional reasoning (if-then) tasks. In the statement “If it rains, then the picnic will be cancelled,” the antecedent is “If it rains.” Consequent 456 – the then statement; in “If it rains, then the picnic will be cancelled,” the consequent is“then the picnic will be cancelled.” Confirmation bias 460 – in reasoning,the tendency to search for evidence that confirms a conclusion Mental models 462 – themental representation of a situation orphysical device; for example, a person’s mental model of the physical motion of bodies or a person’s mental model of a thermostat Psychophysics 464 – the study of the relationship betweenphysical stimuli and the perceived characteristics of those stimuli; the study of how perceptual experience differs from the physical stimulation that is being perceived Distance effect or discriminability effect 465 – an effect, seen particularly in RT, in which 2 distant or highly discriminable stimuli are more easily judged than 2 nearby or less discriminable stimuli; for instance, judgments are faster to “poor vs. excellent” than to “good vs. excellent”. Symbolic comparisons 465 – mental comparisons of symbols (e.g., digits), usually in a “choose smaller/larger” task Symbolic distance effect 465 – the result, in a symbolic comparison task, in which 2 relatively differentstimuli (e.g., 1 and 8) are judged more rapidly than 2 relatively similar stimuli (e.g., 1 and 2) because ofgreater symbolic Chapter 11 Vocabulary 2 distance between 1 and 8.Generally, we judge differences between symbols morerapidly when they differ considerably on some symbolic dimension (e.g., the dimensionof magnitude). Semanticcongruity effect 465 – in the mental comparison task, RT is speeded or judgments are made easier when the basis for a j
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