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Chapter 12

PSYC 221 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: General Problem Solver, Adaptive Control, Functional Fixedness


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 221
Professor
Thomas Spalek
Chapter
12

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Chapter 12 Vocabulary 1
Problem Solving
Gestalt Psychology & Problem Solving 507
Early gestalt research 508
Difficulties in problem solving 509
Insight & Analogy 513
Insight 513
Analogy 517
Cognitive neuroscience of analogy & insight 521
Basics of Problem Solving 524
Characteristics of problem solving 524
A vocabulary of problem solving 525
Means-end analysis: A Fundamental
Heuristic 531
The basics of means-end analysis 532
The Tower of Hanoi 532
General problem solver 536
Adaptive control of thought 538
Improving your problem solving 540
Verbal protocol 507 – in studies, a word-for-word transcription of what the subject said aloud
during the problem-solving attempt
Gestalt 508 –a German term adopted into psychological terminology referring to an entire
pattern, form, or configuration. The term always carries the connotation that decomposing a
pattern into its components in some way loses the essential wholeness of the cohesive pattern.
Functional fixedness 510 – in problem solving, an inability to think of or consider any but the
customary uses for objects and tools
Negative set 511 – a tendency to become accustomed to a single approach or way of thinking
about a problem, making it difficult to recognize or generate alternative approaches
Insight 514 – said to be an essential step in creativity and problem solving, though little if any
research supports this notion empirically
Analogy 518 – a relationship between 2 similar systems, problems, and so on; a heuristic in
which a problem is solved by finding an analogy to a similar problem
Goal 525 – in problem solving, the end point or solution to the problem, the ending state
toward which the problem-solving attempt is directed
Subgoal 526 – an intermediate goal that must be achieved to reach a final goal
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