Verbal protocol 507 in studies, a word-for-word transcription of what the subject said aloud during the problem-solving attempt. Gestalt 508 a german term adopted into psychological terminology referring to an entire pattern, form, or configuration. The term always carries the connotation that decomposing a pattern into its components in some way loses the essential wholeness of the cohesive pattern. Functional fixedness 510 in problem solving, an inability to think of or consider any but the customary uses for objects and tools. Negative set 511 a tendency to become accustomed to a single approach or way of thinking about a problem, making it difficult to recognize or generate alternative approaches. Insight 514 said to be an essential step in creativity and problem solving, though little if any research supports this notion empirically. Analogy 518 a relationship between 2 similar systems, problems, and so on; a heuristic in which a problem is solved by finding an analogy to a similar problem.