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PSYC 241 (14)

Cognitive Behavioural

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PSYC 241
Dagmar Bernstein

Cognitive Behavioural Paradigm BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE Abnormal behaviour = learned responses Rise of Behaviourism Behaviourism – an approach that focuses on observable behaviour rather than consciousness  John B. Watson (1878-1958) responded to introspection by promoting a focus on behaviourism by extrapolating from psychological work on animals Three Types of Learning 1. Classical conditioning 2. Operant conditioning 3. Modelling Classical Conditioning A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) that naturally elicits a certain desired response (unconditioned response, UCR)  After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and evokes the same or similar response, now called the conditioned response (CR). Russian psychologist, Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) studied the digestive system, dog was given meat powder to stimulate salivation  Dog began salivating when it saw it’s feeder, eventually salivated when it heard the feeder’s footsteps  Trained the dog to salivate once it heard the bell, which rang before it was given meat  As the number of paired presentations of the bell and the meat powder increases, the number of salivations elicited by the bell alone increases. vice versa Extinction – the elimination of a CR by omitting the UCS Classical conditioning could also be used to instill pathological fear, such as in John Watson and Rosalie Rayner’s experiment. They would present a white rat to an 11-month old boy, and proceed to make a very loud noise (UCS) that frightened the boy (UCR). This eventually taught the boy to fear (CR) the rat (CS), even in absence of the noise.  Association between classical conditioning and development of certain emotional disorders (including phobias)? Contemporary research  classical conditioning correlated with anxiety disorders Recent Toronto study  schizophrenics making context-inappropriate associations due to CC Cognitive Behavioural Paradigm Operant Conditioning Acquisition or elimination of a response due to environmental rewards and punishments  60 years ago  B.F. Skinner reformulated the law of effect by shifting the focus from the linking of stimuli and responses (S-R connections) to the relationships between responses and their consequences/contingencies  Skinner: “stimuli become the occasions for responses to occur, if they were previously reinforced”  Several behavioural procedures are derived from OC Discriminative stimulus – external events that teach someone to perform certain behaviours for a reward Skinner distinguished two types of reinforcements that influence behaviour: 1. Positive reinforcement – strengthening of a tendency to respond because of the presentation of a pleasant event (positive reinforce); e.g., a water-deprived pigeon will repeat behaviours (operants) if they are followed by the availability of water 2. Negative reinforcement – also strengthens a response, but it does so by the removal of an aversive event (negative reinforcer); e.g., cessation of electric shock OC can especially produce aggressive behaviour, like how one child obtains a toy from another child via hitting. Modelling Albert Bandura – witnessing someone perform certain activities can increase/decrease different behaviours.  Reduced children’s fear of dogs  Can explain abnormal behaviour  Example: Children of parents with phobias or substance-abuse problems may acquire similar behaviours.  Bandura, Ross, and Ross – Bobo doll experiment Four Processes in Observational Learning: 1. Attention – noticing the model’s behaviour 2. Retention – remembering the model’s behaviour 3. Reproduction – personally exhibiting the behaviour 4. Motivation – repeating imitated behaviours because they received positive consequences Cognitive Behavioural Paradigm BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY An attempt to change abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and feelings via classical and operant conditioning Three Theoretical Approaches 1. Modelling 2. Counterconditioning and exposure 3.
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