Textbook Notes (369,072)
Canada (162,367)
Psychology (935)
PSYC 241 (14)


3 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 241
Dagmar Bernstein

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Chapter 2 LO – Psychoanalytic Paradigm 1 Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic paradigm  Psychopathology results from unconscious conflicts in the individual Freud’s Classical Psychoanalytic Theory a. Structure of the mind b. Development and dynamics of personality Structure of the Mind Id  An unconscious part of the personality present at birth  Composed of all the energy of the psyche (libido)  Expressed as biological urges that operate via the pleasure principle  Also obtains gratification by fantasizing (primary process thinking) Ego  Predominantly conscious part of the personality  Decision-making and planning (secondary process thinking)  Operates via reality principle Superego  Conscience part of the personality  Reflection of society’s moral standards as learned from parents and teachers The cooperation of these forces is known as the psychodynamics of the personality. Most important determinants of behaviour are unconscious. Three Kinds of Anxieties 1. Neurotic anxiety – a fear of the consequences of expressing previously punished and repressed id impulses (unrealistic) 2. Objective anxiety – the ego’s reaction to danger in the external world (realistic) 3. Moral anxiety – the ego’s fear of punishment for failure to adhere to the superego’s standards of proper conduct (perfection) Defence Mechanisms  Objective anxiety can be handled by dealing with it in a rational way  Neurotic anxiety can be handled by defence mechanisms—strategies that are unconsciously used to protect the ego from anxiety Main mechanisms  Repression – pushes unacceptable impulses and thoughts into the unconscious (infantile memories)  Denial – disavowing a traumatic experience and pushing it into the unconscious  Projection – characteristics or desires unacceptable to the ego are attributed to someone else Chapter 2 LO – Psychoanalytic Paradigm 2 Other mechanisms  Displacement – redirecting emotional responses from a dangerous object to a substitute o e.g., yelling at your spouse instead of boss  Reaction formation – converting one feeling into its opposite o e.g., converting hate to love  Regression – retreating to the behavioural patterns of an earlier age  Rationalization – inventing a reason for an unreasonable action or attitude  Sublimation – converting sexual or aggressive impulses into socially valued behaviours, especially creative activity Psychoanalytic Therapy Psychotherapy – a social interaction in which a trained professional tries to help another person behave and feel differently 1. Insight therapy – assumes that people become disordered because they don’t adequately understand what motivates them, especially when their needs and drives conflict 2. Action (behavioural) therapy – involve work on behaviour as opposed to work on dreams or transference, as occurs in psychodynamic therapies Classic psychoanalysis is based on Freud’s second
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