PSYC 241 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Thyroid Hormones, Liver Function Tests, Hypothyroidism

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 241
CHAPTER 15: DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
Stereotypy – the repetition of meaningless gestures or movements
Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation (p.339)
Mental Retardation – sub-average intellectual functioning with onset before age 18
-Must also be accompanied by significant limitations in two or more area of adaptive
behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills, such as
communication, self-care, academic, domestic, social or community skills, leisure and
work
-IQ of 75 and lower
Adaptive Behavior (p.341)
-Communication – expressive, receptive and written language
-Daily living or personal living skills – eating, dressing, personal hygiene, domestic and
community living skills
-Social interaction – coping, interpersonal relationships, leisure skills
-Motor skills – movement, coordination, ability to manipulate objects using fingers and
hands
Genetic Cause – genetic links found in more than 70% of intellectual and developmental
disabilities
Down Syndrome
1. Trisomy 21 – extra chromosome on pair 21
o1 in 700 live births
oOccurs in 95% of the cases of Down syndrome
oGreater risk for mothers and fathers above the age of 40
2. Translocation – part of the 21st chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
oOccurs in 4% of the cases
oMothers age does not affect chances
3. Mosaicism
oCell division occurs unevenly so there is 45 or 47 cells
oOccurs in 1% of the cases
oMay have fewer physical characteristics, better speech and higher intellectual
functioning, depending on how many cells are affected
Prenatal Screening (p.344)
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Document Summary

Stereotypy the repetition of meaningless gestures or movements. Mental retardation sub-average intellectual functioning with onset before age 18. Must also be accompanied by significant limitations in two or more area of adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills, such as communication, self-care, academic, domestic, social or community skills, leisure and work. Communication expressive, receptive and written language. Daily living or personal living skills eating, dressing, personal hygiene, domestic and community living skills. Social interaction coping, interpersonal relationships, leisure skills. Motor skills movement, coordination, ability to manipulate objects using fingers and hands. Genetic cause genetic links found in more than 70% of intellectual and developmental disabilities. Amniocentesis needle inserted into the amniotic sac via the mothers abdomen. Chorionic villus sampling (cvs) involves obtaining cells from the placenta. Liver enzyme is inactive and causes the amino acid phenylalanine to build up in the brain to toxic levels, which results in mental retardation.

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