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PSYC 250 (18)
Chapter 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 250
Professor
Tanya Broesch
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 3 Evolution Genes and ConceptionJanuary18131207 AMMethods and techniques studying childreninfants The problem babies cannot tell us anything oSolution for this method techniques Methods preferential looking habituation and violation of expectationDeveloping Fetus 9 months gestationVulnerabilityoTeratagons are substances that can harm the fetus such as alcohol tabaccoTeratogens Environmental agents that have the potential to cause harm during prenatal development legal and illegaloEg Philidomine where moms would take this to treat morning sickness but discover that it affects the baby later Timing oMost critical period when the woman knows they are expecting Most teratogens show a dose response relationLead exposure led to brain impairment even at 7months of age oLead exposure from paintSensitive period specific learning that is mostHigh maternal stress can be an example of a teratogenSensitive periodsSensitive periods with respect to neonatal development Sensitive period weeks 1 to 8 after post conception Fetal Learning32 weeks the fetus may be going through habituation if you are playing back the same song Preferential sucking looking head turnDont have to know all the parts of the brain on the slide Brain development Brain Development Structures Neurons Axon Dendrites Synapse little junctions or gaps btwn neurons which is how info is transmitted1Neurogenesis and Neuron development oNeurogenesis Most neurons created before birth Then migrationdestination cell growth and differentiation2Synaptogenesis oProcess by which synapse takes place 3Synapse elimination Synaptic pruning ouse it or lose it idea Through this process the connections that arent being used are lostoBrain is more malleable early in life rather than laterplasticity decreases as we age because the brain is still developing and there is a surplus of connections more neurons to work with so if neurons are lost there are a lot more to work with to reproducereplace the lost ones oPlasticity meaning being easily shapedmoldedHemispheric specialization One instance of hemispheric specialization is cerebral hemispheresERPevent related potential techniques Measuring the electrical activity that is happening in the brain A technique for understanding infant or general brain developmentLanguage processing most activity occurs in the right hemisphere Spatial reasoning left hemisphereActivity happens in both sides of the brain Left handed people evidence says that things are processed differently in their brainFMRIs FMRI is functional measuring the response to some type of stimuli FMRI are not done on infants because oit is loud and scary oHave to be very still because it is taking a brain scan Cannot move your body bc blood flow would be measured instead of the brain oPowerful magnet that can harm the infant Harmful effect to the developing brainVideo Interview with Andrew Meltzoff Dr that studied babies by doing an action and seeing if the infant will respond in kind Sense of empathy is felt right from when the child is born Play is important because it triggers creative imagination etcVideo brain development with Dr Patricia Kuhl Babies are able to hear all type of sounds even ones that are not native to their language Increased pitch slows the pace which is considered emotionally satisfying 07 years is the critical period of learning oSynapses growing rapidly from 03 years oLearning only seems to happen when the baby is being taught by a physical person and not just a video tape or an audio tape Moderns understanding of Evolution
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