CHAPTER 10 – PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Prosocial behavior - any act performed with the foal of benefiting another person
Altruism - The desire to help others, even if it involves a cost to the helper
3 REASONS WHY PEOPLE HELP:
1. Kin selection - the idea that behavior that helps a genetic relative is favored by natural selection
2. Norm of reciprocity - The expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will
help us in the future
3. The ability to learn and follow social norms
Empathy – the ability to experience events and emotions the way another person experiences them
Said to be the pure motive for helping altruistically
Batson’s empathy-altruism hypothesis – the idea that when we feel empathy for a person we will
attempt to help him or her purely for altruistic reason, regardless of what we have to gain
3 BASIC MOTIVES UNDERLYING PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
1. Helping is an instinctive reaction to promote the welfare of those genetically similar to us.
2. The rewards of helping often outweigh the costs, so helping is in our self-interest.
3. Unger some conditions powerful feelings of empathy for others prompt selfless giving (empathy-
PERSONAL DETERMINANT OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Altruistic personality – aspects of a person’s makeup that cause him or her to help others in a wide variety of
a) Gender differences:
Women are more likely to help when the situation involves nurturance and commitment. They
also provide more practical help to king than did men.
Men are more likely to help in situations that requires bravery or masculinity (hazardous
b) Socioeconomic status:
Low SES people are more likely to help than high SES people.
However, priming high SES people with compassion made them as helpful as low SES people
In-group – the group with which an individual identifies, and of which he or she feels a member
1.People are more likely to help someone they define as a member of their in-group
2.People tend to feel more empathy for in-group members which leads to increased helping
Out-group – a group with which the individual does not identify
- People are less likely to help someone they perceive to be a member of an out-group
Positive moods – feel good, do good; people are more likely to help when they are in a good
1. Good mood makes us look on the bright side of life. (eg. Seeing