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week 7 Reading Notes

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PSYC 268
Deborah Connolly

PSYC 268 – Fall 2012 Week 7 Book Readings: Chapter 4 pp. 104-114; Chapter 10 pp. 269- 274, 287-294 CHAPTER 4: FORENSIC TREATMENT MENTAL DISORDER AS A SECONDARY FOCUS OF INTERVENTION - This group includes offenders who have mental illnesses, sometimes referred to as MDO (mentally disordered offenders), sexual offenders, offenders who are at high risk for violence Mentally Disordered Offenders - Prevalence of Mental Illness in Jails and Prisons – rates of mental illness in the offender population can range from less than 6% to over 60% o 10% suffer from psychotic disorders o Between 15% and 40% suffer from depression, anxiety, etc o 90% suffer from substance use disorders or personality disorders - Distinction between Jails and Prisons – differ in the populations they serve, type of treatments offered to inmates o Jails – short-term facilities that house offenders that have been charged (but not yet convicted) with a crime; may also house offenders who have convicted and have a short sentence (typically less than a year)  Greater proportion of MDOs found here; less treatment options because offenders have shorter stays and are less able to engage in long-term treatment o Prisons – houses inmates who have been convicted and for whom a sentence of more than a year has been received - Jail Mental Health Services o Areas of emphasis were the identification of problems, and dispensing of medication o Drug and alcohol services were available in majority of the jails o Psychological counseling was available in less than half of the jails surveyed - Prison Mental Health Services o Most common form of treatment is the administration of psychotropic medication o Behavioral or cognitive-behavioral treatment is also popular o Special prisons i.e. maximum-security hospitals or special sections of regular prisons specifically target the needs of MDOs  Usually house offenders who have the most serious and chronic mental disorders and employ staff who have been specially trained to deal with the needs of these offenders - Goals of Treatment: (1) Reduction of symptoms of the mental illnesses, (2) Reduction of criminal recidivism o Targeted Areas: active psychotic symptoms, aggression and problems of institutional adjustment, criminal propensity, depression, life skills deficit, social withdrawal, substance abuse - Treatment Programs for MDOs o Behaviorally oriented treatments – to change their behavior o Skills training – to improve social and life skills o Pharmacological treatment – reduce symptoms of mental illness Sexual Offenders - Treatment Programs o Nonbehavioral Psychotherapy o Pharmacological – proven to be effective for reducing the sex drive of sexual offenders  High motivation can replace medication o Behavioral or Cognitive-behavioral Therapy  Goal: normalization of deviant sexual preferences  Training in social competence is a key component of effective treatment programs  Case management and community follow-up is an important component of their continued treatment and success Offenders at High Risk for Violence - Mental Disorder and Violence o In samples of nonoffender community, research suggests that psychotic symptoms and substance abuse or dependence are important risk factors for violence o In samples of criminal offenders, diagnoses of personality disorders (especially Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy) and substance abuse has been linked to violent behavior - Treatment of Violent Offenders o Most effective treatment target the specific needs of the particular offender o Personality Disorders – dialectical behavior therapy o Substance Abuse – Relapse Prevention Training o Three Guidelines for the treatment of violent offenders  Risk – more intensive services should be provided to higher-risk cases  Needs – should target criminogenic needs i.e. personal characteristics that contribute to the commission of crime • Target: antisocial attitudes, aggression, substance abuse, self-control • Inappropriate targets: self-esteem, intrapsychic forces, etc  Style of Treatment – behavioral or cognitive-behavioral treatments have been seen to be the most effective so far RECIDIVISM AND REHABILITATION AS THE FOCUS OF INTERVENTION General Recidivism and Rehabilitation History - Before the 1970s, the preeminent philosophy in corrections was rehabilitation, rather than punishment Treatment Programs for Substance Abuse - Most empirical support: Behavioral or cognitive-behavioral treatments, including behavior contracting, social skills training, relapse prevention - Least empirical support: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), education, lectures COMMUNITY-BASED TREATMENT - Three Key Features for successful monitoring and treatment of individuals on parole or probation: o Centralized responsibility wherein one decision maker or body has primary authority and responsibility over and responsibility for these individuals o A uniform system of treatment and supervision o A network of community services - Intensive follow-up and monitoring is are crucial for the maintenance of behavior change - The most effective treatment is that which occurs in the least restrictive environment o Community: calls into play a delicate balance among the rights of the individual, the need for treatment, and the safety of the community - Clear conditions of parole or probation are important o Medication compliance, attendance at scheduled sessions with therapists and case managers, abstinence from drugs or alcohol, stool/urine sample, no weapons, housing, etc CHAPTER 10: CORRECTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Correctional Psychology – the application of psychological theory and research to the correctional system CORRECTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES Corrections System – responsible for supervising people who have been arrested for, charged with, or convicted with criminal offenses Three Major Forms of Community Supervision - Bail – also known as pretrial release o Those arrested for or charged with criminal offense and are released into the community to await trial OR for people who have been convicted and are awaiting sentencing o Term of bail is often open-ended, and may last many months o May be granted bail based solely on the promise to attend court as directed OR may be asked to guarantee attendance at court by putting up a bond or
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