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PSYC 355 (19)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Introduction

7 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 355
Martin Davidson

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PSYC 355 BOOK NOTES CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADOLESCENTS Early History - According to Plato: reasoning starts in adolescence - According to Aristotle: most important aspect of adolescence is self-determination (ability to choose) - Middle Ages: adolescents seen as adults, and so were disciplined harshly - Rousseau: first to recognize that development has distinct phases o 12-15 years old – curiosity should be encouraged in education o 15-20 years old – individuals mature emotionally The Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries - Storm and Stress View – adolescence as a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings (G. Stanley Hall) - Sociocultural View – the basic nature of adolescence is not biological, but sociocultural (Margaret Mead) o In cultures that provide a smooth, gradual transition from childhood to adulthood, there is little evidence of storm and stress associated with that period - Inventionist View – view that adolescence is a sociohistorical creation o Beginning of 20 century: legislation was passed that ensured the dependency of youth and made their move into the economic sphere more manageable o Other circumstances: decline in apprenticeship, separation of work and home, Industrial Revolution, age-graded schools, urbanization, appearance of youth groups (e.g. YMCA, boy scouts) o 1890-1920 – the age of adolescence - 1950-1970s – the developmental period known as adolescence had “come of age” o Physical, social, and legal identities formed  Every state had developed special laws for youth aged 16 to 18 and 20  Youth protests – ethnic conflicts, Vietnam War o Material interests began to dominate adolescents’ motives o Ideological challenges to social institutions began to recede o 1970s – Feminist Movement - Millennials – the generation born after 1980; the first to come of age in the new millennia (2000) o Ethnic Diversity – more tolerant and open-minded than their counterparts in previous generations o Connection to Technology – first generation to be attached to technology STEREOTYPING OF ADOLESCENTS Stereotype – a generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad group of people - Refers to an image of what the typical member of a specific group is like - Once we assign a stereotype, it is difficult to abandon it Adolescent Generalization Gap – concept of generalizations about adolescents based on information regarding a limited, often highly visible group of adolescents (J. Adelson, 1979) A POSITIVE VIEW OF ADOLESDCENCE Positive Youth Development – The “Five Cs” of PYD (Lerner, 2009) - Competence – positive perception of one’s actons in domain specific areas (i.e. social, academic, sports, etc) - Confidence – overall positive sense of self-worth and self-efficacy - Connection – positive relationships with others (i.e. family, peers, teachers, etc) - Character – having respect for societal rules, an understanding of right and wrong, integrity - Caring/Compassion – emotional concern for others ** needs access to positive social contexts (mentors, programs, opportunities, etc) ADOLESCENTS IN THE UNITED STATES Social Contexts – the social settings in which development occurs - i.e. family, peers, school, neighborhood, etc - cultural context for US adolescents changing because of the increasing number of Asian and Latino immigrants Social Policy and Adolescents’ Development - Social Policy – a national government’s course of action designed to influence the welfare of its citizens - Current social policy is directed towards negative developmental deficits (i.e. drugs, delinquency); there should be a change for strength-based approaches (i.e. community-wide initiatives, school support, etc) THE NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT Processes and Periods - Biological Processes – physical changes in an individual’s body - Cognitive Processes – changes in an individual’s thinking and intelligence - Socioemotional Processes – changes in an individual’s personality, emotions, relationships with other people, and social context Periods of Development - Development – the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span - Childhood o Prenatal Period – the time from conception to birth o Infancy – developmental period that extends from birth to 18 or 24 months of age o Early Childhood – developmental period extending from the end of infancy to about 5 or 6 years of age  Preschool years  Learn to be self-sufficient, and care for themselves o Middle and Late Childhood – developmental period extending from about 6 to 10 or 11 years of age  Elementary school years  Master fundamental skills of reading, writing, and math  Achievement is a central theme of the child’s development  Self-control increases - Adolescence – developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood o Begins at approximately 10 to 13 years of age and ends in the late teens o Early adolescence – roughly middle school or junior high school year  Includes the most pubertal changes o Late adolescence – career interests, dating, and identity exploration become more pronounced in late adolescence - Adulthood o Early Adulthood – beginning in the late teens or early twenties and lasting through the thirties  Time of establishing personal and economic independence, and career development intensifies o Middle Adulthood – entered at about 35 to 45 years of age and exited at about 55 or 65 years of age  Time of increasing interest in transmitting values to the next generation  Enhanced concern about one’s body  Increased reflection about the meaning of life o Late Adulthood – lasts from about 60 to 70 years of age until death  Lessened responsibility and increased freedom  Adapt to changing social roles Developmental Transitions - Childhood to Adolescence o Biological Changes – growth spurt, hormonal changes, sexual maturation o Cognitive Changes – increases in abstract, idealistic, and logical thinking  Egocentric thoughts – unique, invulnerable o Socioemotional changes – quest for independence, conflict with parents, romantic relationships, more self-disclosure to peers  Achievement and academic challenges increase - Adolescence to Adulthood o Emerging Adulthood – 18 to 25 years of age; characterized by experimentation and exploration  Assumes adult roles and responsibilities are postponed  Five key features characterizing this stage (Arnett, 2006) • Identity Exploration – especially in love and work • Instability – in love, work, and education • Self-focused – little social obligations, duties, and commitments to others and therefore have a great deal of autonomy in running their own lives •
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