Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (935)
PSYC 355 (19)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2: Puberty, Health, and Biological Foundations

5 Pages
145 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 355
Professor
Martin Davidson
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC 355 Book Notes Chapter 2: Puberty, Health, and Biological Foundations PUBERTY Determinants of Puberty - Heredity - Hormones – powerful chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands and carried through the body by the bloodstream o Androgen – the main class of male sex hormones  Testosterone – associated with genital development, increase in height, and voice changes o Estrogen – the main class of female sex hormones  Estradiol – associated with breast development, uterine development, and skeletal changes o The Endocrine System  Puberty onset involves the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis • Hypothalamus – monitors eating, drinking, and sex • Pituitary gland – controls growth and regulates other glands • Gonads – sex organs  Pituitary gland sends message to the testes or ovaries to manufacture the hormone; interaction with hypothalamus and pituitary to determine when optimal levels of hormones have been reached and maintains it with additional gonadotropin secretions  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – stimulates follicle development in females and sperm reproduction in males  Lutenizing hormone (LH) – regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in women and testosterone production in males  Negative feedback system • If level of sex hormones too high, then the hypothalamus and pituitary gland reduce their stimulation of the gonads • If level of sex hormones too low, then the hypothalamus and pituitary gland increase the production of the sex hormones o Growth Hormones  Thyroid gland  At the beginning of puberty, growth hormone is secreted at night  Later on in puberty, also released during the daytime, but in low levels o Adrenarche – involves hormonal changes in the adrenal glands  Starts at age 6-9 in girls, and a year later in boys o Gonadarche – involves the maturation of primary and secondary sexual characteristics  Follows adrenarche by two years  Menarche – first menstrual period  Spermarche -- boys first ejaculation of semen - Weight, Body Fat, and Leptin o Higher weight is linked toearly pubertal development o For menarche to occur, a girl needs a minimum of 17% body fat o Leptin – may signal beginning and progression of puberty  Related to the amount of fat in girls  Related to the amount of androgen in boys - Weight at birth and infancy o Low birth weight girls menarche approximately 5 to 10 months earlier than normal birth weight girls o Low birth weight boys are at risk for small testicular volume during adolescence - Sociocultural and environmental factors o Adolescents in developed countries and urban areas reach puberty earlier than their counterparts un less developed countries and more rural areas o African American females and males enter puberty earlier than Latino/a counterparts o Early experiences linked to earlier pubertal onset  Adoption, father absence, low socioeconomic status, family conflict, maternal harshness, child maltreatment, and early substance use Growth Spurt - Peak of pubertal change in girls is at 11.5 years of age - Peak of pubertal change in boys is at 13.5 years of age - Boys and girls who are shorter or taller than their peers before adolescence are likely to remain so during adolescence - Rate at which adolescents gain weight follows approximately the same developmental time table as the rate at which they gain height Sexual Maturation - Boys’ genital development preceded their pubic development by about 4 months - In females, breast development occurs first, followed by the appearance of pubic hair, and then the armpits - Hips become wider than shoulders in females - Precocious puberty – very early onset and rapid progression of puberty o Occurs before 8 years of age in girls, and 9 years of age in boys o Occurs approximately 10 times more often in girls than in boys o Usually treated by suppressing gonadotropic secretions, which temporarily stops pubertal change o Likely to have short stature, early sexual capability, and potenttial for enggaging in age- inappropriate behavior Secular Trends in Puberty - Secular trends – patterns of the onset of puberty over historical time, especially across generations - In 1850s, puberty started at 17 years of age in girls - 1970s, puberty starts at 13 years old for girls - Earlier arrival of pubertal onset historically is believed to be due to improved health and nutrition - Early puberty seems to occur in overweight girls - Obesity delays pubertal onset in boys Psychological Dimensions of Puberty - Body Image o Adolescents preoccupied with their bodies - Gender differences Females Males - Girls less happy with their bodies - Boys more satisfied perhaps because perhaps because of increase in body fat their muscle mass increase - More negative body images - Placed higher aesthetic value on body image but had lower aesthetic satisfaction - Body Art – i.e. tattoos and piercings o Engage in these activities to be different, two stamp their identity as unique o 60% of students with tattoos had academic grades of A’s and B’s (Armstrong, 1995) o Average age of first tattoo – 14 years old o Marker for risk taking in adolescence (especially if one has multiple tattoos or piercings) o Increasingly used to express individuality and self-expression rather than rebellion - Hormones and Behavior o In boys, higher levels of androgens are associated with violence and acting-out problems o In girls, increased estrogen levels are associated with depression o Social factors are a bigger factor than hormones in girls’ depression and anger o Hormones do not function independently; it is influenced by many environmental factors - Early and Late Maturation o Early-maturing boys perceived themselves more positively and had more successful peer relati
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 355

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit