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Chapter

Adolescent Ch8 Family

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 355
Professor
Martin Davidson
Semester
Winter

Description
Ch8. Families January-27-13 5:45 PM I. FamilyProcess A. Reciprocal socialization and the familyas a system ○ Reciprocal socialization: children/adol socializeparents, just as parents socializethem  As opposed to the previous notion that children are products of parents' socialization ○ Parenting ↔ child behaviour/ development ↔ Marital relationship↔ Parenthood  Happilymarriedparents tend to be more responsive, warm, sensitive, affectionate B. Maturation ○ Adolescent changes  Improvedcognitive ability→ challenge parent's reasoning & lessconformity  Idealistic→ overreact to comments/ behaviours of parents  Expectations adolescent has of parents and parents have of adolescent changes with age  School environmentis more diverse/ anonymous →more work requiredof adolescent & greateremphasis on peers/ friends → stronger need for independence ○ Parental changes  Marital satisfaction tends to increase with adolescent moving out  Greater economic burden with aging offspring → re-evaluateoccupational achievement(life goalscompleted?) → attitude towards time remaining(feel there's lots of timeto complete goals? Or out of time?)  Concern about health/ sexual attractiveness ○ Multiple Developmental Trajectory:concept that adults follow one trajectory and children/adol follow another; important to note how they interact/mesh  Timing of lifeevents, un/planned → may be culturallybased  e.g.,marriage,having children, divorce, job loss ○ e.g.,teenage pregnancy, delayedpregnancy (more timefor career/ education)  Alsoinfluences marital satisfaction  Older fathers tend to be more warm, communicative, with more encouragement, give fewer demands; but lessactive II. Adolescents' and emerging adults' relationship with their parents • As influenced by expectationsparents have of adolescents A. Parents as managers ○ Find information,make contacts,help structure choices, provide guidance → avoid pi▯alls ○ Regulateopportunitiesfor social contact with peers, teachers (via. parent teacher conference, managinghomework, etc.) ○ Provide a structured familyenvironment (routine for chores, bedtime, etc.); correlated with school achievement, classroom behaviour, reducing school-related problems ○ Effective monitoring(make sure hw is complete, choiceof social setting/ activities) also related to better academicachievements ○ Parental solicitation(initiateconversation)↔ lower level of antisocialbehaviour ○ Parental monitoring(knowledge of where adolescent is) ↔ lower alcohol use and delinquent incidents ○ Adolescents disclosing information(where they’re going, what they’re doing) ↔ positive adolescent adjustment, positive for parent-adolrelationship (trust)  Reduced by fear of disappointingparents or punishment (→disclose less & lie)  ↔ increased antisocial& rule breaking behaviour, negative parent-adolrelationship  ↔ increased antisocial& rule breaking behaviour, negative parent-adolrelationship  Influenced by parentingstyle (responsiveness & controllingness) B. Parenting styles ○ Authoritarian parenting:  Restrictive, punitive, exhorts adolescent to follow direction & to respect work/ effort  Firm limits& controlsadolescents, little verbal exchange  ↔ socially incompetentbehaviours, anxiety about social comparison,fail to initiate activities, poor communicationskill ○ Authoritative parenting:  Encourageindependent while placinglimits/controls  Extensive verbal exchange (reasoning; lets adolescent express their views)  Parents are warm, nurturing (makes adol respect parents more) ↔ socially competent behaviours, self-reliant, socially responsible  Even just one authoritativeparent will decrease risk of delinquency  Establishes balancebetween control & autonomy(opportunityto develop independence) ○ Neglectful parenting:  Parent is uninvolved, low parental monitoring(don’t know where they are)  Parent feel other aspects of their lives are more importantthan adol, though adol seeks their attention  ↔ socially incompetentbehaviours (esp. self control), poor handlingof independence  Highest rate of delinquencyfor familieswith 2 neglectful parents ○ Indulgent parenting:  High involvement, but lack limits/controls (think it’ll breed creativity) → adol don’t learn self control & expect things to do their way  sociallyincompetence(esp. self control) ○ Parenting Styles and Ethnicity  Authoritarianstyle more common amongAfrican American, Latino,Asian American parents  Asian American families’ parentingstyle may be conceptualizedas “training”-- based on parental control that’sdistinct from authoritarian(though very involved; endorses Confucian parental goals of perseverance, working hard, obedience, sensitive to parents’ wishes) ↔ high academicachievements  Latino familiesencourages independent development, with respect and obedience  African American more likely to use punishment→ usuallylinked with externalized child problems (actingout, lots of aggression) □ perhaps b/c they’re more likely in dangerous environments ○ Further thoughts  Critic: it doesn’t includeimportantthemes of reciprocal socialization  Critic: parents tend to use more than one style, though one may be dominant→ consistency is more important  Critic: too broad; which aspects of parentingare more important(warmth vs. monitoring) C. Co-parenting ○ Poor communication,undermining/disparagement of the other parent, lack of cooperation/warmth, disconnectionby parenting partner  ↔ increase developmentalrisk ○ when parents mutuallyrespect, cooperate, balancecommunication,attuneto needs → Adol develop positive attitudes Adol develop positive attitudes D. Parent-adolescent conflict ○ Stereotype of generation gap (parents/adol tend to have similar beliefs aboutwork, career, achievements; have similar religious/ politicalbeliefs) ○ Conflict increases between parent/adol duringadolescence (talked about earlier) → not as bad as storm/stress (Hall) ○ Conflict tends to be about littlethings (washroom is messy, talkingon the phone, curfew, etc.) → tend to be resolved with adolescents giving in (decreases with adol age) ○ average of an argument every 3 days, lasting 11 minutes, mostly between mother- daughter ○ 20-25% of families engage in prolonged/ intense unhealthyconflicts↔ moving away from home, delinquency,droppingout, pregnancy, early marriage, religious cult, drug abuse; internalizing(F)/externalizing(M)behaviours  Possible that problemsexisted before adolescence, but escalated b/c adol is too big to suppress E. Autonomy and attachment ○ 1. Autonomy  Increased independenceusually has littleto do with defying parents → (1) parents may treat adol more like adults(involved in decision making)for healthy adjustment or (2) increase control (authoritarianstyle) for unhealthyadjustment  Many parents expect adol to want to spend time with family, heed their advice → underestimatedifficulty in adjustingto changes that adol goes through  Complexityof Adol Autonomy □ Autonomy:greater self-direction, independence → hard to define □ Emotional autonomy: capacityto relinquish childlikedependence on parents → see them as ppl and not only paren▯ngfigures  Gender and Culture □ Boys tend to be given more independencethan girls (more monitoring) □ Timingof adolescent autonomyvaries across cultures  e.g., less likely to live outside home, seek autonomylater, etc.  Developmental Transitionsin Autonomyand GoingAway to College □ Individualdifferences in reacting to going awayto college □ For some, (ex. from divorced families where children play the role of comforter) they feel more responsible → homesickness □ Over time, psychologicaldependency decreases, social/personal adjustment improves  Adolescent Runaways □ Reasons: desperately unhappyat home, abuse, parents’ dependency on drugs/ alcohol,poverty, lack of attention/understanding  Most tend to be legitimatereasons  Parents’ disapproval of relationship, ideas are oppressed by parents □ Process: starts with spendingless time at home □ ↔ decreased resilience, school disengagement, depressive symptoms, substanceuse/dependence ○ 2. Attachmentand Connectedness  Secure and insecure attachment □ Secure attachment: infant use primary caregiver as secure base, explores environment □ Insecure attachment: infant avoid/resist caregiver (ambivalent)  Adolescence  Adolescence □ Dismissing/avoidantattachment: de-emphasizeimportanceof attachment→ parents/adol distancefrom each other, lessen parental influence □ Preoccupied/ambivalentattachment: hyper-attuned to attachment experience (b/c parents were inconsistentlyavailable)→ high degree of a▯achmentseeking, mixed with anger → high level of conflict □ Unresolved/disorganizedattachment: high level of fear (~b/c trauma;parents death or abuse by parent)  Conclusionsabout Parent-Adolescent Conflict and Attachmentin Adolescence □ Old model: adol detach from parent as they age (autonomy);conflict is intense and stressful □ New model: parents serve as attachmentfigure for adol to explore widened world; conflict tends to be moderate/normal  Attachmentin Emerging Adults □ Similarattachmentsin romanticpartner (use romanticpartner as secure base from stress) □ Secure attachmentas infant ↔ secure attachmentin relationship  Influenced by stressful/disruptive experience (ex. death of parent) □ Secure attachmentstyle -- positive view of relationships, easy for them to get close to others, not overly stressed by romanticrelationship  ~60-80% of adults □ Avoidant attachmentstyle -- hesitant aboutgetting involved, tend to distance self from partner □ Anxious attachmentstyle -- demandcloseness, less trusting, more emotional/ jealous/ possessive  Troubled rumination with parents: adjustment based; negative attachmenthistory; sense of rejection by parents, regret not havingbetter relationship with parents; general sense of dissatisfaction □ ↔ lower self esteem, life satisfaction, psychologicaldistress, problem in romanticrelationship  While attachmenttends to be stable, adults can change thinkingand behaviours F. Emerging adults' relationship with their parents ○ Tends to improve when they leave home → grow psychological
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