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Adol Ch2.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 355
Martin Davidson

Ch2. Puberty, health, biological foundations February-10-13 12:08 PM I. Puberty A. Determinants of Puberty ○ Heredity:linked to onset & progressionof puberty ○ Hormones: powerful chemicals  Androgen: mainclass of malesex hormones  Estrogen: mainclass of femalesex hormones  Testosterone ↔ increase in sexual desire  Endocrine: negativefeedback of androgen/estrogen on the hippocampus (GnRH) → pituitary (LH?FSH) → Gonads → hormones  Growth hormones ↔ thyroid  Andrenarche: pubertal changes related to adrenal hormonal changes (adrenal androgen)  Gonadarche: pubertal maturation of primary/secondarysex characteristics; aka "puberty" ○ Weight/bodyfat/lepton: low amounts ↔ delayedonset of puberty ○ Birth weight: low birth weight ↔ earlieronset in F  Earlieronset for overweightchildren ○ Sociocultural & environmental factors  Urban faster than rural → no difference if adopted into urban family  Stress (adoption, father absent, low SES, familyconflict, etc.) ↔ earlieronset B. Growth spurt ○ Peak: 11 (M), 9(F) @ 4" (M), 3.5" (F) per year ○ Similartiming for weightgain (hip F, shoulder M) C. Sexual Maturation ○ Precocious puberty: early/rapidonset/progression ○ <8y/o (F), <9y/o (M) ○ Treat with medicine ○ ↔ shorter stature, early sex capacity, engagein age inappropriate behaviour D. Secular trend ○ Pattern of onset of puberty over historic time → tend to be earlier E. Psychological dimensionsof puberty ○ Body image  Preoccupation more common during adol/puberty  More dissatisfaction ○ Gender differences  F less happy about change, M more happy/satisfied  F place morevalue on body image,but less satisfied  More positive body image↔ health enhancing (sports) II. Health A. Adolescence: A critical juncture in health ○ @ peak of health, so many don't have healthy habits ○ Promote health enhancing behaviours via  Participate in school/organizedactivity  Participate in school/organizedactivity  Communityresources (Boys & Girls'Club)  Secure attachment w/ parents ○ Risk-Taking behaviours  Peak of sensation seeking in ~10-15 y/o (~18y/o too)  Lots of individualdiff in sensation seeking  Decrease with resources (community, youth activity, role model)(social capital -- # of schools, churches, diploma)  Increase w/ timespent w/ peers (hanging out)  b/c prefrontal cortex matures after amygdala(emotion before reason)  Decrease w/ consequences (cost of cigarette, parental monitoring) ○ Health Services  Adol tend to underutilizehealth care system (it doesn't suit their needs → race, SES, age)  Tend to seekhealth services for disease (vs. mental health, tobacco use, sex)  Lack of training in dealing with adol (sensitivetopics) □ May make it more awkward b/c teens think it's not to be talked about ○ Leading causes of death  Accident: motor vehicle, DUI □ Social policy: more limitation(L→N license)  Homicide-- esp. high among AfricanAmerican males(3x die from gun than natural causes)  Suicide (more in ch13) B. Emerging adult's health ○ 2x the mortality rate of adol ○ ↑ riskof mental illness& chronic health problems ○ Habits that affect health: food (skipbreakfast, snacking excessively),lack of exercise, drinking excessively C. Nutrition ○ Many adol have eating disorder ○ Tend to eat meals/snacksof high in protein & fat, rather than fruit/vegs ○ Parent play a big role (availabilityof food @ home) D. Exercise and Sports ○ Developmental changes  Physical activities increaseto 13y/o, start to [email protected]/o  Non-Latino whitemales (→ African American→ white) ○ Positivebenefits of exercise in adolescence  Regulatesnormal weight(esp. in girls)  Reduce triglyceridelevel,blood pressure, risk of diabetes (type 2)  Buffer against stress (self image,selfesteem, relationshipswith parents, depression) ○ Role of .. In exercise  Famili
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