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Adolescent Ch5.pdf

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PSYC 355
Martin Davidson

Ch5. Gender March-09-13 9:09 PM I. Biological,social and cognitiveinfluences on gender • A. BiologicalInfluences ○ Pubertal changesand sexuality  renegotiation of gender identity to includesexuality □ more so for M than F □ androgen level M sexual activity  F: more soft spoken, sensitive; M: assertive, cocky ○ Freud/Erikson -- Anatomyis Destiny  Freud: gender/sexual behaviours are unlearned and instinctual  Erikson: genitals determine personality(intrusive vs. inclusive)  critic: people are free to choose their gender roles ○ EvolutionaryPsychology and Gender  due to differing roles in reproduction  M: multiplesexual partners to spread more genes; compete with other M to get mate → short term matingstrategies (risk taking, violent)  F: securing resources → long term matingstrategies (parenting, preference for successful mates)  critic: these are only speculations;people aren’t locked in behaviours that were evolutionarilyadaptive;doesn’t take culture into consideration • B. Social Influenceof Gender ○ social role theory: gender differences result from contrastingrole of M/F, with F having less power/control/resources  F: domesticwork, lower pay ○ Parental Influences  parents monitorF more than M children (view F as sexually vulnerable)  parental expectationsfor F vs. M (science/math)  mothers tend to be more involved than fathers, esp. if no son  mothers: caregiving; socializedaughters to be more obedient/responsiblethan M, more restrictions on autonomy  fathers: leisure; more attentionto & involved with sons  F tend to list ‘family’ as more importantthan M  social cognitive theory of gender: children/adolescentdevelop gender through observations and imitationof gender behaviour& rewards/punishmentfor gender- in/appropriatebehaviours ○ Siblings  younger siblingstend to be more similar to older siblings in gender role & leisure activity  limited to siblings with 2 year difference ○ Peers  in middle/latechildhood,become more geared towardspeers  peers reward/punishgender in/appropriatebehaviours  in adolescence, peer approvalis a powerful influence on gender  in adolescence, peer approvalis a powerful influence on gender attitudes/behaviours □ more likely to have mixed gender groups ○ Schoolsand Teachers  biased against boys □ compliancemore associated with F □ teachers tend to be F □ M more likely to be criticized & ignored  biased against girls □ M get more attentionb/c they’re actingout (more instructions, hints) □ F experience drop in self-esteem in middle school □ Elementary M can list more career optionsthan F  mixed findings for whether same-sex schools improves this ○ Mass Media influence  stereotyped portrayal of adolescent F (shopping, dating, airheads, etc.)  music videos highly sexualizes & objectifies F  idealized characters in shows for adolescentsto identify with  media influences body image in F > M • C. Cognitive influences on gender ○ gender schema theory: behaviours are guided by internal motivationto conform to gender-based socioculturalstandards& stereotypes  to perceive the world and act similarly • II. Gender Stereotypes, Similaritiesand Differences • A. Gender Stereotyping ○ gender stereotyping: broad categories that reflect our impression/beliefs about F/M  e.g., F: nurses, good with words; M: mechanic,good with numbers ○ M associated with instrumentaltraits (independence, aggression, power oriented)  suited for traditionalrole as breadwinner ○ F associated with expressive traits (warm, sensitive)  suited for caretaker ○ unequal in job & social status/power • B. Gender Similaritiesand Differences ○ Physical Similarities/differences  M: taller, greater physical strength, higher stress hormone, larger hypothalamus, larger parietal lobe, larger brain size  F: more body fat, longer life expectancy, more resistance to infection/disease, more brain folds  Brain differences ≠ psychologicaldifferences ○ Cognitive Similarities/differences  None in overall intellect  M: greater math & visuo-spatialskills  F: greater verbal skills  Debate on extent of differences  Strong evidence of difference  Performance may reflect attemptsto conform to gender roles  F have more positive attitudeabout school (less drop out, more post-secondary admission rate) admission rate) □ But more negative attitudeabout math, parental/teacherexpectations ○ Socio-emotionalsimilarities/differences  Aggression □ M more physicallyaggressive than F (across cultures)  Verbal aggression either higher in F or equal □ Relational/socialaggression (spreadin
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