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Ch5, 6, 13.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 355
Martin Davidson

Ch5. Gender March-09-13 9:09 PM I. Biological,social and cognitiveinfluences on gender • A. BiologicalInfluences ○ Pubertal changesand sexuality  renegotiation of gender identity to includesexuality □ more so for M than F □ androgen level M sexual activity  F: more soft spoken, sensitive; M: assertive, cocky ○ Freud/Erikson -- Anatomyis Destiny  Freud: gender/sexual behaviours are unlearned and instinctual  Erikson: genitals determine personality(intrusive vs. inclusive)  critic: people are free to choose their gender roles ○ EvolutionaryPsychology and Gender  due to differing roles in reproduction  M: multiplesexual partners to spread more genes; compete with other M to get mate → short term matingstrategies (risk taking, violent)  F: securing resources → long term matingstrategies (parenting, preference for successful mates)  critic: these are only speculations;people aren’t locked in behaviours that were evolutionarilyadaptive;doesn’t take culture into consideration • B. Social Influenceof Gender ○ social role theory: gender differences result from contrastingrole of M/F, with F having less power/control/resources  F: domesticwork, lower pay ○ Parental Influences  parents monitorF more than M children (view F as sexually vulnerable)  parental expectationsfor F vs. M (science/math)  mothers tend to be more involved than fathers, esp. if no son  mothers: caregiving; socializedaughters to be more obedient/responsiblethan M, more restrictions on autonomy  fathers: leisure; more attentionto & involved with sons  F tend to list ‘family’ as more importantthan M  social cognitive theory of gender: children/adolescentdevelop gender through observations and imitationof gender behaviour& rewards/punishmentfor gender- in/appropriatebehaviours ○ Siblings  younger siblingstend to be more similar to older siblings in gender role & leisure activity  limited to siblings with 2 year difference ○ Peers  in middle/latechildhood,become more geared towardspeers  peers reward/punishgender in/appropriatebehaviours  in adolescence, peer approvalis a powerful influence on gender  in adolescence, peer approvalis a powerful influence on gender attitudes/behaviours □ more likely to have mixed gender groups ○ Schoolsand Teachers  biased against boys □ compliancemore associated with F □ teachers tend to be F □ M more likely to be criticized & ignored  biased against girls □ M get more attentionb/c they’re actingout (more instructions, hints) □ F experience drop in self-esteem in middle school □ Elementary M can list more career optionsthan F  mixed findings for whether same-sex schools improves this ○ Mass Media influence  stereotyped portrayal of adolescent F (shopping, dating, airheads, etc.)  music videos highly sexualizes & objectifies F  idealized characters in shows for adolescentsto identify with  media influences body image in F > M • C. Cognitive influences on gender ○ gender schema theory: behaviours are guided by internal motivationto conform to gender-based socioculturalstandards& stereotypes  to perceive the world and act similarly • II. Gender Stereotypes, Similaritiesand Differences • A. Gender Stereotyping ○ gender stereotyping: broad categories that reflect our impression/beliefs about F/M  e.g., F: nurses, good with words; M: mechanic,good with numbers ○ M associated with instrumentaltraits (independence, aggression, power oriented)  suited for traditionalrole as breadwinner ○ F associated with expressive traits (warm, sensitive)  suited for caretaker ○ unequal in job & social status/power • B. Gender Similaritiesand Differences ○ Physical Similarities/differences  M: taller, greater physical strength, higher stress hormone, larger hypothalamus, larger parietal lobe, larger brain size  F: more body fat, longer life expectancy, more resistance to infection/disease, more brain folds  Brain differences ≠ psychologicaldifferences ○ Cognitive Similarities/differences  None in overall intellect  M: greater math & visuo-spatialskills  F: greater verbal skills  Debate on extent of differences  Strong evidence of difference  Performance may reflect attemptsto conform to gender roles  F have more positive attitudeabout school (less drop out, more post-secondary admission rate) admission rate) □ But more negative attitudeabout math, parental/teacherexpectations ○ Socio-emotionalsimilarities/differences  Aggression □ M more physicallyaggressive than F (across cultures)  Verbal aggression either higher in F or equal □ Relational/socialaggression (spreading rumours)  Not sure ifF engagein this more, but it is a largepercentage of what F do □ parentalpsychological control ↔ more relationship aggression  Communicationin relationship □ Rapport talk: conversation, establishingconnection& negotiatingrelationship  More in F > M □ Report talk: informative  More in M > F □ M groups tend to be hierarchal (leader), clear winner/loser, boasting(social status) □ F groups tend to be small, pervasive intimacy,games of turn taking, focus on buildingconnection □ F more people oriented; M more thing oriented → mayinfluence their choice of job, post-secondary path, etc. □ Critic: overly simplisticview; genders are more similarthan different  Pro-social behaviours □ F view self as more prosocial/empathetic □ More equal amongsharing; more difference in kind/considerate behaviours  Self regulationof behaviour/emotions □ F more likely to express emotions openly (esp. sadness/fear), better at reading emotions  M: more expressions of anger □ M show less self regulation → lower self control → more behaviour problem  Less cooperative behaviours, more teasing, more frustration, etc. • C. Gender Controversy ○ Differences b/c of evolution?Sociallyimposed roles? ○ Gender differences tend to be small. • D. Gender in Context Males Females more likelyto perceive dangeras present more likelyto help if it's care-relevant (little and feel competent to help danger, feel more competent) Feel challenged→ angertowards stranger → turn angerinto aggression ○ Gender roles are more rigidin certain cultures III. Gender- RoleClassification • A. Masculinity, Femininity, Androgyny ○ Masculinity & femininityare their own spectrum (not extremesof one spectrum) → having both is fine ○ Androgyny:presence of high degreeof masculinity& femininitycharacteristics in same individual  e.g.,dominant & caring female;assertive & sensitivemale  e.g.,dominant & caring female;assertive & sensitivemale HighMascu. Low M HighFem. Androgynous Feminine ○ Low F Masculine Undifferentiated • B. Context, Culture, and Gender Roles ○ Personality-trait-likecategorization  F/androgyny maybe more desired for nurturing roles; M/androgynymore desired for assertiveroles ○ Increasinglymore children raised to behave androgynously ○ Less rigidconforming to traditional gender norms, but still dominant  M as breadwinner, F as caretaker ○ Cultural background influential on socializing children • C. Androgyny and Education ○ Easier to teach androgynyto F > M ○ Easier to teach at earlierage (before middleschool)  More effective in grade 5 than 9 • D. Traditional Masculinity and Problem Behaviours in Adolescent Males ○ Over the years, littlechange to "boy code," which teaches M to express as little emotions as possible, to act tough ○ "boy code" is reinforced in playgrounds, etc. ○ M may benefit from being socializedto express anxiety/concerns ○ Strong masculinerole associated with problem behaviours  Doesn’t have social approval but validatesmasculinity  ↔ premarital sex, drinking/ drugs, • E. Gender Roles Transcendence ○ Gender-role transcendence: beliefthat when P's competence is at issue, it should be conceptualised not as masculine/femininebut as on personal basis  See self as person, and not masculine/feminine  Teach kids to be competent, not masculine/feminine IV. Developmental Changes and Junctures A. Early Adolescence and Gender Intensification ○ Gender intensification hypothesis: gender differencesare pronounced in psychology/behaviourduring adolescence b/c P are pressured to conform to gender roles ○ Decreased interest in gender-typed activities over age B. Is Early Adolescencea Critical Juncture for Females ○ Gilliganinterviewedgirls6-18 y/o  Girlshave a "different voice" (experiencelife different than boys, makes them more sensitiveto rhythms/emotionsin relationships) ○ In earlyadolescence, learn that male-dominantculture doesn't value intimacy→ learn to silencetheir "different voice" → becomes less confident & self-doubt → depression, eating disorder ○ Tend to lowervoice in social/publiccontext (ex. at school)  Androgynous girlsreported higher voices inall settings ○ Critic: overemphasison differences in gender  Exaggerates differencesin intimacy in M vs. F  Reinforces gender stereotypes (that F are caring)  Reinforces gender stereotypes (that F are caring)  Perhaps "voice of victim"instead, and helppromote higherlevelsof achievement and self determination ○ More substantial decrease in self-esteem found in adolescent F than M Ch6. Sexuality March-18-13 7:56 PM I. Exploring AdolescentSexuality • A. Normal Aspect of Adolescent Development ○ Adolescents are negativelystereotyped, including their involvementwith sexuality  Majority engagein healthy sexual behaviours/attitudes ○ Societal/cultural differencein approach (chaperone, curfew, experimentation, etc.) ○ Hormonal change increasessexual drive ○ Egocentrism, think selfas invulnerable→ engagein riskysex behaviour ○ Incorporate sexualityinto identity ○ Difference between genders ○ Better relationshipwith parents ↔ better outcome • B. Sexual Culture ○ Imageof sex changed over time ○ Adolescents are told not to think of sex, but they see positiveimageof sex on media→ super confusing ○ Among 12-17 y/o, those who watch more sexuallyexplicitTV shows ↔ more likelyto initiatesexual intercourse, endorse in sexual stereotypes, higher riskof pregnancy ○ ↔ more sexuallypermissive,have multiplelifetimesex partners ○ Useinternet as a resource ○ Policiesabout sexuality,contraceptive, media, abstinence, sexual responsibility • C. Developing a Sexual Identity ○ Learning to manage sexual feelings(arousal/attraction), new forms of intimacy, learning skillsto regulate behaviour to avoid undesirable consequences ○ Strongly influenced by social norms ○ Viewpeers are sexuallypermissive,high rates of intercourse, engagerisky sexual practice • D. Obtaining Research Information About Adolescent Sexuality ○ Honesty is an issue when surveying adolescents ○ Experimenters are strangers ○ May givedesired answers instead of truth ○ M mayover report, F mayunder report II. Sexual Attitudes and Behaviours • A. Heterosexual Attitudes and Behaviours ○ Developmentof Sexual Activityin Adolescents  Fewer adolescents report sex  More commonly reported as enjoyableby M>F  Report of sex is more even in M/F ○ Oral Sex  Common(b/c it negates risk of pregnancy) but STI still a risk  Less likelyto have STI, get pregnant, feel guilty/used, haverelationship deteriorated, get in trouble with parents ○ Cross Cultural Comparison  Timing of initiationinfluenced by culture/gender  In developing world, sexuallyactive F tend to be married; whereasF in USA/Sweden/etc.tend to be unmarried Sexual Script ○ Sexual Script  Stereotyped pattern of role for how P should sexuallybehave; P socializedto follow scripts  Confusing when working out sexual identity  F more likelyto report being in loveas reason to be sexuallyactive  M tend to initiate, F tend to set limits  Double standards still exist to restrict F from experiencing/talkingabout sexuality □ Need to be sexybut need to control □ Buffer with support/acceptance from friends ○ Risk Factors in Adolescent Sexuality  Early experienceslinked with riskybehaviours, drug use, school problems  ↔ SES status, poverty, family/parenting,peers, school influences  ↔ familyconnectedness, parent-adol communication about sexuality, parent monitoring, parent connectedness  Association with delinquent peers ↔ more sexual partners  Attention problemsand aggressivedisruptivebehaviours, weak self-regulation  Positivesexual outcome ↔ pro-social norms (information on norms of risk behaviours) & spirituality(beliefin higherpower)  Approach ismoving towards positiveyouth development (PYD) , developmore positiveoutlook and enhanced activities ○ Further Exploration of Sexualityin Emerging Adults  @18y/o, >50% had sex → active/unmarried  Averageagefor marriage27M, 26F  M: more casual partners, F: moreselective  Those who are sexuallyactive in adol ↔ more risky behaviourin e-adult (unsafe sex, more partner, etc.) • B. Sexual Minority Attitudes and Behaviours ○ 1st experienceusually inadolescence ○ Orientation isn't set in stone ○ Not hetero vs. home → sexual minority(LGBT) ○ Higher% of health riskbehaviour among sex minority ○ Factors Associated with Sexual Minority Behaviour  Not exactly hormonal (injection of androgen doesn’t change orientation, only increases sex drive) □ Maybe only during months after conception (prenatal)  Twin studies: genes may playa rolebut isn't the only factor ○ Developmental Pathways  Some have no recollection of same-sexattribution in childhood and have abrupt realizationin adol  Diversepatterns of initialattraction  Attraction (emo/physical)≠ love(sometimesoverlap though) ○ Gay/LesbianIdentity Disclosure  Usually~12y/o when M first attracted to same-sex  Self-denial is common ○ Discrimination/Bias  Homophobia: irrational & negativefeelingsagainstP who have samesex attraction → ridicule, assault, murder, avoidance, faulty beliefabout lifestyle  Discriminationover housing, employment, etc.  Causesself-devaluation □ e.g.,passing: hiding real social identity(closeted)  Report of less positiveexperiences  Higherriskof suicide (15% vs. 7% heterosexual youth) (maybe exaggeratedb/cc only disturbed youths were surveyed) disturbed youths were surveyed)  More likelyto start drinking earlier,start sex, targeted for violence  Familyrejection ↔ depression, substance use, risky sex • C. Self-Stimulation ○ Most frequent sexual outlet for adol, esp. M ○ M tend to report more than F (80% vs. 48%) ○ Less guilt than previousgenerations, but still defensive • D. Contraceptive Use ○ Reduces risks of pregnancy and STI ○ Not commonly/consistently used by adol III. NegativeSexual Outcomes in Adolescence • A. Adolescent Pregnancy ○ Incidence of Adolescent Pregnancy  In early/middleadolescents, "children having children"  Other countries with lowerrates: □ Childbearingseen as adult responsibility □ Clearmessageabout sex behaviour (expectation about context of sex, committed relationship, protect self) (more comprehensive/informativesexin schools) □ Access to familyplanning service (incorporated into health care → free/low cost) ○ Trends in USA Adolescent Pregnancy Rates  Been on declinesince 1991 (37% decrease)  b/c of school, health care, contraceptive use, fear of STI  Daughters of teenage mothers ↔ become teenage mom □ Low parental monitor, povery  More nonmarital pregnancy than in the past □ Preg ≠ reason for marriageanymore (shotgun marriage) ○ Abortion  Availabilityvariescross the world  In 2006, 27% teen preg→ abortion  Risk of abortion vs. risk of childbirth  Abortion not as psychologically/emotionallydamaging as people think ○ Consequences of Adolescence Pregnancy  Health riskto adolescent & baby → more likelyto be premature & underweight (→ infant mortality)  Teen mom tends to drop out  Tend to come from low SES from family(not liketeen preg → low SES) ○ Adolescents as Pregnant  Only 1 in 5 get prenatal care  Childtend to havelower IQ scores, teen parents have unrealisticgoals (vs. older parents)  Less likelyto have close relationshipwith father ○ Reducing Adolescent Pregnancy  Sex ed/familyplanning □ Need to be ageappropriate □ Baby think it over doll → acts realisticallylikebaby □ Increases the age P wants to have babies, consider career goals  Access to contraceptive methods (adol clinics)  Life options appraoch □ Motivate to reduce pregnancy risk □ Motivate to reduce pregnancy risk □ Become self-sufficient& successful (academic/ career skills,job opportunity, consultation, mental health service)  Communityinvolvement/support □ In Sweden, the imageof sex not as mythical, doesn’t have conflict connotation □ Dutch media talks about sex/contraception • B. SexuallyTransmitted Infections ○ Commonlythought to be exclusiveto someone elseand that it'll be easilycured ○ Not limitedto vaginal intercourse (oral, anal) ○ HIV/AIDS  Acquired immunodeficiencysyndrome, caused by human immunodeficiencyvirus  Makes P more vulnerableto germs  Highestrate among drug user, P with other STI, young gaymale, low SE
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