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Chapter 9

PSYC 356 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Critical Role, Behaviorism, Meiosis

Course Code
PSYC 356
Arlene Young

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Chapter 9 - Intellectual Disability
Intellectual disability appears on Axis II in the DSM-IV-TR because it is considered a stable
condition rather than a clinical disorder
Modern definitions take into account a person’s intellectual functioning within the context of what
is typical for that individual’s peers and culture.
Includes not only subaverage intellectual functioning but also a subaverage level of adaptive
functioning (how effectively individuals cope with ordinary life demands and how capable they
are of living independently and abiding by community standards
Intelligence and Mental Retardation
early history plagued by ignorance and blame
intellectual disability refers to limitations in both intelligence and adaptive behaviour.
Many with this disorder are capable of learning and of living fulfilling lives
IQ has become principal standard for diagnosis (despite controversy) along with other
skills and abilities
Features of Intellectual Disabilities
considerable range of abilities and interpersonal qualities
experience limitations that involve most areas of daily living
most obvious difficulties: learning to communicate effectively, due to their limited
speech and language skills
diagnostic criteria:
significantly subaverage intellectual functioning (IQ score of approximately 70 or
concurrent deficits or impairments in adaptive functioning - ability to perform daily
activities. Must also show significant limitations in at least two areas of adaptive
communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of
community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work,
leisure, health, and safety
below-average intellectual and adaptive abilities must be event prior to age 18
developmental disorder evident during childhood and adolescence
age criterion rules out persons who may show mental deficiencies cause
by adult-onset degenerative diseases
definition somewhat arbitrary and inaccurate
degrees of impairment, based primarily on IQ scores:
mild mental retardation
moderate mental retardation: delays in reaching early developmental
milestones. Many persons with DS function at this level
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