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Chapter 12

PSYC 356 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Parasomnia, Sleep Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 356
Professor
Arlene Young
Chapter
12

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Psyc 356 final review Chapter12 Health-related disorders
Health related disorder is different from psychological disorders: the problems are
more connected to the impact of the physical illness.
Psychosomatic: physical disorder that stems from or is affected by psychological
and social factors.
Psychophysiological: psychological factors affect somatic function.
Substance Use Disorder
FYI -Inhalants have the highest immediate risk.
-18-25 has highest percentage of drug abuser.
- use peak at late adolescents and decline during young adulthood
- marijuana use is common and increasing, but cigarette is declining.
- Alcohol use before 14 is a strong predictor
- Ethnicity difference: American indian highest. Asian lowest. Black is lower
than whites.
- substance use increase high-risky behaviors: unsafe sex(have ealier sexual
intercourse than nonuser), G report dating aggression 5times higher. As a Risk
factor for unhealthy weight control, suicide.
DSM criteria (P408):
Substance dependence (more serious): at least 12 months, 3+(out of 7) significant
clinical signs of distress: tolerance, withdrawal and other indices of compulsive
use. Specify whether have tolerance/withdrawal.
Substance abuse: at least 12 months, 1+(out of 4) harmful and repeated negative
consequence.
Adolescents are more likely show cognitive and affective features rather than
physiological dependence.
Difference btw adult substance use and adolecents’:

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-Drink less but drink more at one time.
-strongly influenced by peers
Causes:
-Personality: sensation seeking,strongly predict marijuana. Postive attitude towards
substance.
- family functioning: lack of involvement and poor monitoring(associated with B
but not G) , negative interactions.
- peers and culture: access of substance; peer pressure
Treatment:
-Relapse is common within 3 months of the Tx.
-Motivational interviewing: discrepancy bwt current behav and future goals.
-MST: include everything
-Life Skill Training: building drug resistance skills.
Sleeping disorders
The importance of sleeping: people spend a lot of time sleeping, especially during
the childhood time for brain to develop. It is the fundamental role in brain
development and regulation.
Direction of relationship: Sleep problem psychological adjustment
(Bidirectional)
Not enough sleep can result in less executive control, unable to inhibit well.
FYI:
-Newborns sleep about 16-17 hrs a day, 1yr sleeps 13 hrs.
-Infants& toddles: night-waking problems
-Preschooler: falling asleep problems
-School-age: going-to-bed problems.
-Adolescents& adults: going or staying asleep (insomnia)
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