Psyc 356 final review Chapter12 Health-related disorders
Health related disorder is different from psychological disorders: the problems are
more connected to the impact of the physical illness.
Psychosomatic: physical disorder that stems from or is affected by psychological
and social factors.
Psychophysiological: psychological factors affect somatic function.
Substance Use Disorder
FYI -Inhalants have the highest immediate risk.
-18-25 has highest percentage of drug abuser.
- use peak at late adolescents and decline during young adulthood
- marijuana use is common and increasing, but cigarette is declining.
- Alcohol use before 14 is a strong predictor
- Ethnicity difference: American indian highest. Asian lowest. Black is lower
- substance use increase high-risky behaviors: unsafe sex(have ealier sexual
intercourse than nonuser), G report dating aggression 5times higher. As a Risk
factor for unhealthy weight control, suicide.
DSM criteria (P408):
Substance dependence (more serious): at least 12 months, 3+(out of 7) significant
clinical signs of distress: tolerance, withdrawal and other indices of compulsive
use. Specify whether have tolerance/withdrawal.
Substance abuse: at least 12 months, 1+(out of 4) harmful and repeated negative
Adolescents are more likely show cognitive and affective features rather than
Difference btw adult substance use and adolecents’: -Drink less but drink more at one time.
-strongly influenced by peers
-Personality: sensation seeking,strongly predict marijuana. Postive attitude towards
- family functioning: lack of involvement and poor monitoring(associated with B
but not G) , negative interactions.
- peers and culture: access of substance; peer pressure
-Relapse is common within 3 months of the Tx.
-Motivational interviewing: discrepancy bwt current behav and future goals.
-MST: include everything
-Life Skill Training: building drug resistance skills.
The importance of sleeping: people spend a lot of time sleeping, especially during
the childhood time for brain to develop. It is the fundamental role in brain
development and regulation.
Direction of relationship: Sleep problem psychological adjustment
Not enough sleep can result in less executive control, unable to inhibit well.
-Newborns sleep about 16-17 hrs a day, 1yr sleeps 13 hrs.
-Infants& toddles: night-waking problems
-Preschooler: falling asleep problems
-School-age: going-to-bed problems.
-Adolescents& adults: going or staying asleep (insomnia) -Nightmare rate: Childhood: G=B adolescence+adulthood: G>B
DSM criteria (the following two apply to all disorders in this chapter):
Most young children do not met full criteria.
1. The presence of clinically significant distress or impairment in social,
occupational or other important areas of functioning.
2. Sleep disturbance cannot be better accounted for by another mental disorder,
the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition.
Two categories: dyssomnia and parasomnias (table on P387-388)
Dyssomnia: disturbance in the amount, timing or quality of sleep. (Disorders of
initiating or maintaining sleep, difficulty getting enough sleep, not sleeping when
you want to, not feeling refreshed from sleeping.)
Specific type: protodyssomnia, hypersomnia, narcolepsy, breathing-related sleep
disorder, circadian rhythm sleep disorder.
-most resolve as they mature
Parasomnias: behavioural or physiological events intrude on ongoing sleep.
These events include: REM parasomnia (occur during REM:
Arousal parasomnias(occur first third of sleep
cycle): sleep terror, sleepwalking.
Treatment of sleeping disorder:
Behavioural intervention (general approach): teach parents skills to comfort child,
establish sleeping routines.
For nightmare: support and conform Elimination disorders
Enuresis: involuntary discharge of urine during the day or night.(usually
known as bedwetting)
Primary enuresis: start age 5,