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Chapter 3

PSYC 357 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: A Generation, Dependent And Independent Variables, Convergent Validity


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 357
Professor
Wendy Thornton
Chapter
3

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CHAPTER THREE: THE STUDY OF ADULT DEVELOPMENT AND AGING: RESEARCH METHODS
Studies of aging use the quasi-experimental design (p. 45)
- Term used to describe the process of comparing groups on predetermined characteristics
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS (p. 46)
Age, cohort and time of measurement these jointly influence an individual’s performance ona a given
psychological measure
1. Age chronological age measured in years
o Change within the individual
2. Cohort period of birth measured in interval of time
o A generation born under the same social influences
o i.e hairstyles, values, those in college during the Vietnam War
3. Time of measurement date at which testing occurs
o Current influences on individuals being tested
o i.e. adults now are more proficient at using computers than adults 15 years ago because
computers are now more widely used
Longitudinal Designs (p. 47)
- people are followed repeatedly over time
- measures’age changes’ and therefore developmental
- effects of aging cannot be separated from historical change
- researcher will not have publishable results
- selective attrition of respondents participants will be lost over time
- practice effects on tests may lead to improved performance
- original test may become outdated
Cross-sectional Design (p. 51)
- quick and inexpensive
- measures difference between age groups and not changes over time
- results may reflect cohort differences and not differences due to aging
- tasks may not be equivalent for different cohorts
- survivor problems exist because the older adults are a select group
- appropriate age ranges are difficult to determine
SEQUENTIAL RESEARCH DESIGNS (p. 53)
- longitudinal plus cross-sectional designs
The Most Efficient Design
- a set of three designs manipulating the variables of age, cohort and time of measurement
time-sequential design (age by time of measurement)
cohort-sequential design (cohort by age)
cross-sequential design (cohort by time of measurement)
CORRELATIONAL DESIGNS(p. 55)
- relationships are observed among variables as they exist in the world
Simple Correlational Designs (p. 55)
- two variables are related, but a researcher cannot know which came first
- possibility that a third unknown variable accounts for the apparent relationship between the two
observed variables
Multivariate Correlational Designs (p. 56)
- involves the analysis of relationships among more than two variables
- in multiple regression analysis the predictor variables are regarded as equivalent to the independent
variables, and the variable that is predicted is regarded as equivalent to a dependent variable
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