Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
Psychology (900)
PSYC 357 (50)
Chapter 3


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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 357
Wendy Thornton

CHAPTER THREE: THE STUDY OF ADULT DEVELOPMENT AND AGING: RESEARCH METHODS Studies of aging use the quasi-experimental design (p. 45) - Term used to describe the process of comparing groups on predetermined characteristics DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS (p. 46) Age, cohort and time of measurement – these jointly influence an individual’s performance ona a given psychological measure 1. Age – chronological age measured in years o Change within the individual 2. Cohort – period of birth measured in interval of time o A generation born under the same social influences o i.e hairstyles, values, those in college during the Vietnam War 3. Time of measurement – date at which testing occurs o Current influences on individuals being tested o i.e. adults now are more proficient at using computers than adults 15 years ago because computers are now more widely used Longitudinal Designs (p. 47) - people are followed repeatedly over time - measures’age changes’ and therefore developmental - effects of aging cannot be separated from historical change - researcher will not have publishable results - selective attrition of respondents – participants will be lost over time - practice effects on tests may lead to improved performance - original test may become outdated Cross-sectional Design (p. 51) - quick and inexpensive - measures difference between age groups and not changes over time - results may reflect cohort differences and not differences due to aging - tasks may not be equivalent for different cohorts - survivor problems exist because the older adults are a select group - appropriate age ranges are difficult to determine SEQUENTIAL RESEARCH DESIGNS (p. 53) - longitudinal plus cross-sectional designs The Most Efficient Design - a set of three designs manipulating the variables of age, cohort and time of measurement  time-sequential design (age by time of measurement)  cohort-sequential design (cohort by age)  cross-sequential design (cohort by time of measurement) CORRELATIONAL DESIGNS(p. 55) - relationships are observed among variables as they exist in the world Simple Correlational Designs (p. 55) - two variables are related, but a researcher cannot know which came first - possibility that a third unknown variable accounts for the apparent relationship between the two observed variables Multivariate Correlational Designs (p. 56) - involves the analysis of relationships among more than two variables - in multiple regression analysis – the predictor variables are regarded as equivalent to the independent variables, and the variable that is predicted is regarded as equivalent to a dependent variable - logistic regression – researchers test the likelihood of an individual receiving a score on a discrete yes- no variable o often used to determine whether non-random sampling has occurred - structural equation modeling (SEM) – researchers develop hypotheses regarding the relations among observed (measures) and latent (underlying) variables or factors o takes into account the possibilities that there are complex relationships among variables and factors of interest - advantages of multivariate correlational designs o control for confounds related to age  can add in other variables o allow investigations of ‘causality’  significance of paths can be tested o provide ways to examine change over time  can model individual variations in growth - hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) – also called multilevel modeling o individual patterns of change are examined over time rather than simply comparing mean scores of people at different ages TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS (p. 58) Laboratory Studies – participants are tested in a systematic function using standardized procedures - Most objective way of collecting data - Advantages: provides the investigator
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