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Chapter 2

PSYC 357 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Telomere, Oxidative Stress, Crosslinks


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 357
Professor
Wendy Thornton
Chapter
2

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CHAPTER 2: MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT: NATURE AND NURTURE IN ADULTHOOD
Life Span Perspective – development is continuous from childhood to old age
Contextual Influence – life span change is a function of nature and nurture
Developmental Science – need to look at multiple factors in development
Models of Individual-Environment Interactions (p. 22)
Niche-picking – genetic and environmental factors work together to influence the direction that children’s lives take
Gerontology – the study of the aging process
Organismic Model – based on the notion that ‘nature’ drives development
-Growth in childhood and beyond is the manifestation of genetic predisposition
Mechanistic Model – ‘nurture’ is the primary mode of development
Interactionist Model – not only do genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) interact in complex ways, but the
individual also actively participates in his or her development through reciprocal relations with the environment
-Multidirectionality – there are multiple paths of development
-Plasticity – course of development may be altered
-Multidimensionality – development can proceed in multiple dimensions across life
SOCIOCULTURAL MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT (p. 25)
Levels of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Perspective
1. Biological/Physiological processes – affect the functioning of the body
2. Adaptational processes – coping, personality, cognition
3. Proximal social relational – individual’s relationships with peers, family, school, work
4. Sociocultural – relations with larger social institutions like government, public policy, economic systems
Ecological Perspective – identifies multiple levels of the environment that interact with individual processes of
change
Life Course Perspective – emphasizes the importance of age-based norms, roles, and attitudes as influences
shape events throughout development
-Disengagement Theory – proposes a set of specific linkages between social roles and well-being among
older adults
-Activity Theory – view that older adults would rather be involved and not forced out of productive social
roles
-Continuity Theory – proposes that whether disengagement or activity is beneficial to the older adult
depends on their personality
Ageism – a set of beliefs, attitudes and social institutions, and acts that denigrate individuals or groups based on
their chronological age
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