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PSYC 357 (50)
Chapter 2


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PSYC 357
Wendy Thornton

CHAPTER 2: MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT: NATURE AND NURTURE IN ADULTHOOD Life Span Perspective – development is continuous from childhood to old age Contextual Influence – life span change is a function of nature and nurture Developmental Science – need to look at multiple factors in development Models of Individual-Environment Interactions (p. 22) Niche-picking – genetic and environmental factors work together to influence the direction that children’s lives take Gerontology – the study of the aging process Organismic Model – based on the notion that ‘nature’ drives development - Growth in childhood and beyond is the manifestation of genetic predisposition Mechanistic Model – ‘nurture’ is the primary mode of development Interactionist Model – not only do genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) interact in complex ways, but the individual also actively participates in his or her development through reciprocal relations with the environment - Multidirectionality – there are multiple paths of development - Plasticity – course of development may be altered - Multidimensionality – development can proceed in multiple dimensions across life SOCIOCULTURAL MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT (p. 25) Levels of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Perspective 1. Biological/Physiological processes – affect the functioning of the body 2. Adaptational processes – coping, personality, cognition 3. Proximal social relational – individual’s relationships with peers, family, school, work 4. Sociocultural – relations with larger social institutions like government, public policy, economic systems Ecological Perspective – identifies multiple levels of the environment that interact with individual processes of change Life Course Perspective – emphasizes the importance of age-based norms, roles, and attitudes as influences shape events throughout development - Disengagement Theory – proposes a set of specific linkages between social roles and well-being among older adults - Activity Theory – view that older adults would rather be involved and not forced out of productive social roles - Continuity Theory – proposes that whether disengagement or activity is beneficial to the older adult depends on their personality Ageism – a set of beliefs, attitudes and social institutions, and acts that denigrate individuals or groups based on their chronological age - Represent stereotyped views of different age groups; it is founded on the overgeneralizations about individuals based on a set of characteristics that have negative social meaning - Modernization hypothesis – the increasing urbanization and industrialization of Western society have led to lower social value for older persons - Multiple Jeopardy Hypothesis – states that older individuals who fit more than one discriminated-against category are affected by biases against each of these categorizations - Social clock – the normative expectations for the ages at which major life events should occur PSYCHOLOGICAL MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD (p. 29) Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory – superego, ego and id 8 stages 1. Trust vs. mistrust – early infancy 2. Autonomy vs. shame/doubt – toddlerhood 3. Initiative vs. guilt – early childhood 4. Industry vs. inferiority – middle childhood 5. Identity achievement vs. identity diffusion – adolescence 6. Intimacy vs. isolation – young adulthood 7. Generativity vs. stagnation
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