PSYC 357 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Telomere, Oxidative Stress, Crosslinks

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CHAPTER 2: MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT: NATURE AND NURTURE IN ADULTHOOD
Life Span Perspective – development is continuous from childhood to old age
Contextual Influence – life span change is a function of nature and nurture
Developmental Science – need to look at multiple factors in development
Models of Individual-Environment Interactions (p. 22)
Niche-picking – genetic and environmental factors work together to influence the direction that children’s lives take
Gerontology – the study of the aging process
Organismic Model – based on the notion that ‘nature’ drives development
-Growth in childhood and beyond is the manifestation of genetic predisposition
Mechanistic Model – ‘nurture’ is the primary mode of development
Interactionist Model – not only do genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) interact in complex ways, but the
individual also actively participates in his or her development through reciprocal relations with the environment
-Multidirectionality – there are multiple paths of development
-Plasticity – course of development may be altered
-Multidimensionality – development can proceed in multiple dimensions across life
SOCIOCULTURAL MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT (p. 25)
Levels of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Perspective
1. Biological/Physiological processes – affect the functioning of the body
2. Adaptational processes – coping, personality, cognition
3. Proximal social relational – individual’s relationships with peers, family, school, work
4. Sociocultural – relations with larger social institutions like government, public policy, economic systems
Ecological Perspective – identifies multiple levels of the environment that interact with individual processes of
change
Life Course Perspective – emphasizes the importance of age-based norms, roles, and attitudes as influences
shape events throughout development
-Disengagement Theory – proposes a set of specific linkages between social roles and well-being among
older adults
-Activity Theory – view that older adults would rather be involved and not forced out of productive social
roles
-Continuity Theory – proposes that whether disengagement or activity is beneficial to the older adult
depends on their personality
Ageism – a set of beliefs, attitudes and social institutions, and acts that denigrate individuals or groups based on
their chronological age
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Document Summary

Chapter 2: models of development: nature and nurture in adulthood. Life span perspective development is continuous from childhood to old age. Contextual influence life span change is a function of nature and nurture. Developmental science need to look at multiple factors in development. Niche-picking genetic and environmental factors work together to influence the direction that children"s lives take. Gerontology the study of the aging process. Organismic model based on the notion that nature" drives development. Growth in childhood and beyond is the manifestation of genetic predisposition. Mechanistic model nurture" is the primary mode of development. Interactionist model not only do genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) interact in complex ways, but the individual also actively participates in his or her development through reciprocal relations with the environment. Multidirectionality there are multiple paths of development. Plasticity course of development may be altered. Multidimensionality development can proceed in multiple dimensions across life. Levels of bronfenbrenner"s ecological perspective: biological/physiological processes.

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