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Canada (158,423)
Psychology (900)
PSYC 357 (50)
Chapter 5


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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 357
Wendy Thornton

CHAPTER 5: HEALTH AND PREVENTION Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Conditions Atherosclerosis – disease wherein fatty deposits collect in the arteries at an abnormally high rate, so much so that they substantially reduce the width of the arteries and limit the circulation of the blood Arteriosclerosis – general term for the thickening and hardening of arteries (occurs in normal aging to some degree) - changes associated ware thought to be due to the damaging effects of hypertension Coronary heart disease – blockage in arteries that lead to the heart Myocardial infarction – acute condition in which the blood supply to part of the heart muscle is severely reduced or blocked Blood pressure - systolic and diastolic refer to the BP at the stages of the heart during contraction and at rest - hypertension – disease where individual chronically suffers from blood pressure greater than or equal to 140mm Hg systolic pressure and 90mm Hg diastolic pressure (140/90) - if a persons BP is always elevated, the blood is constantly putting strain on the walls of arteries and eventually the arterial walls develop areas of weakness and inflammation - Damage to the walls of the arteries make them vulnerable to the accumulation of plaque causing further thickening and limitation of blood flow - People with hypertension more likely to develop hypertrophy (overgrowth) of the left ventricle of the heart, which limits its ability to do its job of pumping the blood Congestive heart failure (or heart failure) – condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body’s other organs - blood flows out of the heart at an increasingly slower rate causing a back up in the flow of blood back to the heart - tissues eventually become congested with fluid - edema – condition in which fluid builds up in their bodies, causing a swelling og the legs Cerebrovascular disease – term used to refer to disorders of circulation to the brain Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) – acute condition in which an artery leading to the brain bursts or is clogged by a blood clot or other particle Transient ischemic attack (TIA) – caused by the development of clots in the cerebral arteries; also called ministroke - blockage in artery is temporary - tissue deprived of blood soon recover but chances of another TIA will follow Behavioral Risk Factors Sedentary lifestyle Smoking Alcohol intake Body weight -88% of adults 75 and - 20% of adults are - 50% of adults are regular - 61% of those at risk for heart older do not exercise smokers drinkers disease are overweight -24% risk reduction for - rates lower in older - rates lower in older adults - 30.3% of he US population is obese light exercisers adults - in women, moderate alcohol - high rates of stroke attributed to -47% risk reduction for - smoking damages consumption appears to diets that are based on high regular strenuous arteries making them have protective effects from consumption of sodium, exercisers more vulnerable to CVD monounsaturated fatty acids, plaque formation - heavy intake (>60g a day) is polyunsaturated fatty acids and associated with increased cholesterol and low consumption of stroke risk fiber Miscellaneous factors: lower levels of education and access to health care Incidence Rates - heart disease is the number one killer in the US resulting in 25% of all deaths in 2007 - Heart + cerebrovascular disease accounted for 35% of deaths in the US of people 65+ - Worldwide, coronary heart disease was the leading cause of death in 2002 Metabolic syndrome symptoms - high levels of abdominal obesity - abnormal levels of blood cholesterol - hypertension - insulin resistance - high blood fats - high levels of C reactive proteins in the blood  possessing 3 of the above risk factors increases a persons risk of mortality from CVD Prevention of Heart Disease and Stroke - lowering of cholesterol through preventive medications is becoming the primary mode of intervention - control of diet and participation in exercise as preventive strategies - Mediterranean diet – minimally processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, grains, olive oil and low amounts of red meat and dairy - Relaxation training CANCER - skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in the US Risk Factors and Preventions - all cancer is genetically caused in the sense that it reflects damage to the genes that control cell replication - develops when random mutations occur that cause the body’s cells to malfunction - mutations develop as either a mistake in cell division or in response to injuries from environmental agents such as radiation, chemicals, carcinogens - Three greatest lifestyle risk factors for the development of cancer: 1. Exposure to the sun - Skin cancer directly linked to UV radiation exposure - Artificial sources of UV radiation such as sunlamps and tanning booths can cause skin cancer despite the claims of their safety - Cancer of the eye more likely to develop in those who use artificial tanning devices 2. Cigarette smoking - Most lung cancer caused by cigarette smoking, and exposure to cigarette smoke is a risk factor for developing cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, larynx, bladder, kidney, cervix, pancreas and stomach 3. Diet - Cancers associated with high BMI include the esophagus, colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and kidney - Cancers of the stomach and prostate for men - Cancers of the breast, uterus, cervix and ovary for women - Specific foods seem to play a role in cancer prevention o Stomach cancer more common in parts of the world wherein people eat foods that are preserved by drying, smoking, salting or pickling Miscellaneous Factors - Environmental toxins - Asbestos, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium and nickel - Variations due to race and ethnicity are observed among certain types of cancers - skin cancer more likely to develop in white and fair skinned people - uterine cancer more prevalent in whites - prostate cancer more prevalent in blacks - rectal cancer more prevalent in whites - Hormonal factors - growth of cancer cells in prostate is stimulated by male hormones such as testosterone - estrogen increase the likelihood of developing uterine cancer Treatments - the best way to treat cancer is to prevent it - biennial screening mammography is recommended for women between the ages of 50 and 74 - surgery is the most common treatment for most types of cancer when it is probable that all of the tumor can be removed - radiation therapy involves the use of high energy X rays to damage cancer cells and stop their growth - chemotherapy use drugs to kill cancer cells - biological therapy is treatment involving substances called biological response modifiers that improve the way the body’s immune system fights disease DISORDERS OF THE MUSCOSKELETAL SYSTEM - osteoarthritis – painful degenerative joint disease that often involves the hips, knees , neck, lower back, or the small joints of the hands o eventually injury/repeated impact thins away the cartilage that cushions the ends of the bones in the joint so that the bones rub together o the articular cartilage that protects the surfaces of the bones where they intersect at the joints wears down o typically develops in joints injured by repeated overuse o obesity is a risk factor o treatment  use of medication such as aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen and non-sterodial anti- inflammatory drugs  injection of sodium hyaluronate into the joint  total replacement of an affected joint such as a hip or knee - Osteoporosis – abnormal loss of bone mineral content; occurs when the bone mineral density is more than 2.5 standard deviations below the mean of young, white, non Hispanic women o White and Asian women have the highest risk o Risk factors  Alcohol and cigarette smoking increase the risk of developing osteoporosis  Deficiency of sex hormones o Protective factors  Well balanced diet with an adequate intake of calcium, high in protein and a variety of nutrients  Exercise and physical activity DIABETES - Caused by a defect in the process of metabolizing glucose - Symptoms (develop more gradually and less noticeable in Type II) o Frequent urination o Unusual thirst o Weight loss o Blurred vision o Frequent infections o Slow healing of sores - Type II Diabetes – pancreas produce some insulin, but the body’s tissues fail to respond to the insulin signal, a condition known as insulin resistance o Glucose cannot be transported into the body’s cells to be used because the insulin cannot bind to the cells insulin receptor o Excess glucose excreted through urine and the body loses a main source of energy - Hypoglycemia – occurs when blood sugar levels become too low - Gestational diabetes – diabetes developed during pregnancy; more likely to experience complications and infants are more likely to have birth defects RESPIRATORY DISEASES Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – a group of diseases that involve obstruction of the airflow into the respiratory system - Chronic bronchitis o Long standing inflammation of the bronchi o Inflammation of the bronchi leads to increased production of mucus and other changes, which lead to coughing and expectoration of sputum - Chronic emphysema Biological Psychological Social - Changes in glucose, - sedentary lifestyle; also - habitual eating patterns, lack of metabolism, obesity associated with depression and education, low economic
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