Textbook Notes (363,062)
Canada (158,169)
Psychology (900)
PSYC 357 (50)

Psych 357 Ch 8.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
PSYC 357
Dagmar Bernstein

Psych 357 Ch 8 (Personality and patterns of coping) • Personality generally means unobservable influence on our outward behaviour o Hippocrates (greek) developed notion that there were 4 basic temperaments/dispositions  Tho contemporary discussion generally begins w/Freud and psychodynamic theory • Psychodynamic perspectives: o Freud credited w/having “discovered” unconscious mind (really was more the first to develop comprehensive theory that incorporated multiple components of personality into integrated whole o Many current theories of adult dev and personality are based on psychodynamic persp even if don’t explicitly consider role of unconscious forces on behaviour o Increasing incorporation of cognitive processes into traditional focus of psychodynamic approaches o Freud said most personality dev is compelte by age 5 with some additional touches in adolescence  Therapy not of value ot over 50 b/c personality rigidly set and unchangeable  Said much of personality hidden in unconscious with conscious tup of iceberg  Ego (part of personality most available fo conscious awareness) • Performs rational, executive functions of mind and organizes indiv’s activities so goals can be attained • Defense mechanisms to protect conscious from socially unacceptable unconscious • Unconscious urges could drive us to expression of love/sexuality and ptl destruction of self and others  Ultimate goal of dev to love and work, live everyday life w/o conflict  Maturity and healthy use of defense mechanisms in ppl who have resolved childhood conflicts o Ego psychology:  Freud said ego w/o independent role in personality (served desires of id)  To other theorists tho ego is equivalent to conscious mind (performing integration, anaylsis and synthesis of thought)  Ego psychology says ego plays central role in actively directing behaviour • Ie Erikson’s theory of Ego identity • Erikson’s stages each w/crises and each w/pt of max vulnerability to biological, psychological and social forces operating on indiv at that particular pt in life o Favourable or unfavourable outcome in each crisis stage • Rochester Adult Longitudinal study w/questionnaire measures of psychosocial dev o Findings- consistency of age changes across 2 cohorts in 2 stages theorized to change most in college/early adulthood (identity vs identity diffusion and intimacy vs isolation)  F w/strong identities in early 30s more likely remain in home rather than invest energies into careers • Also Ravenna Helson study not orginially intended for Eriksonian dev, findings interpreted in terms of his theory o Wanted to investiage personality characteristics and plans for future of college women o Evidence for considerable personality stability  Tho women increased in qualities of assurance, indep and self ctrl and decrease on scale measuring how feminine they felt  Findings taken to suggest increased personality integration and movement in middle adulthood to becoming positive contributor to society  Also indiv difs in personality change patters linked to variations in level of ego dev and identity  Social roles also influence dev thru late midlfe of qualities such as dominance, masculinity/femininity, flexibility and achievement • Loevinger view of ego incorpratign how we think as wella s structure of personalities o Ego a structure w/in personality that attempts to synthesize, master and interpret experiences (can regulate impulses, relating to others and achieve self understanding)  Indiv’s in conformist stage only very basic understanding of self/others and reasons for following societal rules (hard to understand why others think/feel the way they do) • Most adults in 2 stage of Conscientous-Conformist (first have an internalized sense of right and wrong, and aware of own motives and those of other ppl) • Conscientious stage- dev true internalized conscience (understand society’s rules and reasons for rules) o Insight into own emotiosn and emotional needs of others • Final 3 stagse involve increasing sense of individuality and self determination o Individualistic stage- an appreciation and respect for individuality emerges o Autonomous stage- inner standards even more clearly articulated, various personality attributes start to emerge as indiv’s cognitive abilities allow for recognition of complex causes of own and other behaviour  Also ability to live w/uncertainty o Integrated stage- reach by few where indiv w/clear sense of self, can recognize inner conflicts and highly values individuality  Achieve expression of “true inner self” • Loevinger’s stages of Ego dev (above) which combines ego and moral dev o Ego level not completely synonomous w/intelligence  Higher levels associated w/assertiveness, confomirty and fearfulness • Vaillant: heavy emphasis on use of defense mechanisms (unlike Freud say they become increasingly adaptive to help us cope w/life’s challenges) o When younge ruse less mature/maladaptive defences, (ie displacement) o More mature- humor o Categories of defences  Psychotic • Delusional projection- attributing one’s own bizarre ideas/feelings to others • Denial • Distortion- exaggerating/altering reality  Immature • Projection- attributing unacceptable ideas/feelings to others • Hypochondriasis- exaggerated physical complaints as expressed psych conflict • Acting out  Neurotic • Displacement- transferring unacceptable feelings from true to safer object • Repression- forgetting • Reaction formation- expressing opposite of one’s true feelings  Mature • Altruism- turning unacceptable feelings into behaviour that’s helpful to others • Sublimation- expressing unacceptable feelings in socially acceptable way • Humor o Sutyd looking at evidence for positive rlnshp b/w maturity of defences and various outcome measures  If immature defences more likely alcohol prob,s unstable marriages, etc  Position rlnshp b/w ego defences and adaptation  Older adults use more mature defences to ctrl negative emotions, put situation into persp  Regardless of age women more likely avoid unpleasant or stressful situations, blame selves for problems and seek support of others • Men more likely externalize feelings and use reaction formation  Adult attachment theory: • Emphazie earliest rlnshps in life as root of personality • Rlnshp w/mother set parameters for sense of self dev • Attachment style- how we relate to our primary attachment figure shifts in adulthood to be how we relate to romantic partner o Secure- seek reunion, not angry, just reassured o Anxious attachment- wants contact but resists mother o Avoidant attachment- resists contact • Fewer anxiously attached adults in older than younger age groups o Tho tendency for older indivs to lower emotional attachments to other ppl (way to protect self from interpersonal losses?) • Attachment style likely not stable trait tho it emerges early o Reflection of social rlnshps (these vary over time and so does attachment style) o Changes in attachment style related to changes in depressive symptoms and felings of well being  When depressed appeared less securely attached, over course of study tho among oldest groups there were increases in both secure and in dismissing attachments styles o Socialization plays role in dev of attachment style  Older adults less negatively affected by punitive experiences from childhood • Trait approaches: o Propose that adjectives capture essence of indiv’s psychological makeup  Personality equivalent for set of stable characteristic attributes o Trait- stable, enduring attribute that characterizes one element of indiv’s personality  Trait theories of personality based on assumption that organization of specific personal dispositions guides behaviour  Also increasingly coming to be viewed in terms of genetic of constitutional theories of personality o The 5 factor model: (Costa and McRae)  Neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness (OCEAN) • Measured by NEO- Personality inventory revised (NEO PI R) o NEO b/c those were original 3 o Can be self or other ratings • Neuroticism- tendency to experience psychological distress, overreactiveness and instability • Extraversion- preference for social linteraction and lively activity • Openness to experience- receptiveness to new ideas, approaches and experiences • Agreeableness- selfless concern for others, trust and generosity • Conscientiousness- Organization, ambitiousness and self discipline  Important notion that personality affects course of indiv’s life (experiences only rarely cause personality changes) • Ppl choose situations as a function of their personalities  Research based on the 5 factor model: • High degree of consistency over time, some modest changes  Health and personality: • Much centered around Type A behaviour pattern- collection of traits thought to increase person’s risk of developing cardiovas
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 357

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.