Textbook Notes (369,204)
Canada (162,462)
Psychology (935)
PSYC 357 (50)

Psych 357 Ch 7.docx

8 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 357
Dagmar Bernstein

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Psych 357 Ch 7 (Language, problem solving and intelligence) • Info on thinking and learning in later adulthood can provide greater understanding of the ptl for “lifelong learning” • Language: wide range of cognitive functions including comprehension, memory and decision making o Most researchers believe that the average healthy older adult doesn’t suffer significant losses in the ability to use language effectively under normal speaking conditions  Basic abilities to carry on convo, read, write maintained thru life o Cognitive aspects of language:  Reading rates slows (even in ppl w/good visual acuity), hearing also affected  Slowing of cognitive processesing to affet quality of interpretations that older ppl derive from spoken language  Retrieval deficits  May use simpler sentences, writing simpler in expression of ideas and grammatical complexity  Also Working memory deficits (declines in capacity) • But compensating effects of aging in processes involved in speech comprehension/production • Don’t lose ability to understand indiv words, can grasp and remember descriptions in language • See no impairment in ability yo put together structure of sentence along w/the emphasis the speaker uses while talking  Older adults use compensating strategies shown by increased activity in frontal cortex to deal w/WM deficits • Older adults more right hemisphere, younger adults more left?  Effect of experience on understanding context in language  Well developed schemas of info/structures o Social aspects of language:  Ability to tell a great story may improve as we age and dev greater language richness/metaphorical ability • Increased tendency to reminisce but can be seen as being too focused on the past (negative rxn by younger ppl) • Talk excessively about generally uninteresting topic (make others uncomfy)  Biggest/most serious change in communication patterns w/age is seen in young ppl • Elderspeak= simplified speaking pattern directed at older adults who are presumed to be cognitively impaired/misunderstand  Communication predicament model= use of elder speak constrains older adults from participating fully in conversations w/others (lack of cognitive stimulation leads to adoption of simpler speaking patterns) • Like pattern of over parenting or failure to encourage indep • Process of infantilization to create loss of incentive for older adults to regain self sufficiency in basic daily activities • Every day problem solving: o Movement in research away from abstract reasoning abilities, instead on personal every day probs (finances, maintaining meds) o Characteristics of problem solving:  Prob solving involves assessing current state of situation, deciding on desired end state and finding ways of transforming current into desired state • Probs lacking clear goals or when steps confusing place increased cognitive burden on indiv o Problem solving in adulthood:  Everyday problems are multidimensional (unlike those in labs)  Experience can enhance both prob solving performance and feelings of self efficacy  Increasing ability to only search out necessary info (experts able to zero in) • Attraction effect- distracting alternatives= tendency to find a less than optimal choice b/w two alternatives to be more attractive when a third alternative is presented o Young adults more likely to fall prey to this effect  Tend to seek familiar answers to familiar problems, so may miss something important • Older prob solvers may think they’re doing a better job at probb solving but objectively they may not be considering alternatives effectively enough • Older adults sticking to pattern of responding • Perseveration (continue on a task)- ie say same word twice when listing words beginning w/a K o Certain amount of frontal lobe deficit associated w/aging (not entirely pathological) o Despite losses in ability to plan, advantage for older ppl of more experience and access to relevant info (more well developed schemata) o Older ppl make quicker decisions, even in areas where they’re not experts  Don’t feel as dependent on incoming info? Maybe less able to use multiple info sources?  Base decisions on own experience rather than incoming info o Older ppl better off in familiar situations but premature decisions make novel situations harder and less likely to be correct o Adult learners:  Jean Piaget’s Formal operations= ability of adolescents and adults to use logic and abstract symbols in arriving at solutions to complex problems • Perhaps Postformal Operations? Way that adults structure their thinking over and beyond that of adolescents o Incorporates tendency of mature thinker to use logical processes that are specifically geared to complex nature of adult life  Can judge if formal logic or simpler methods required • Dialectical thinking= interest in and appreciation for debate, arguments, and counterarguments  Implications for adult learners (students)- may rely more on attaining mastery of material thru certain strategies (ie copious notes)  Variation b/w ppl • Intelligence: o Historical perspectives on adult intelligence:  Research on intelligence emphasizes the description and analysis of individual difs in years from 20s and over  First test Stanford Binet to eval mental abilities of children  Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale • Early findings suggest that age difs across adulthood follow “classic aging pattern” (inverted U w/peak in early adulthood followed by steady decline) o Findings of either no decline of decline that wasn’t evident until very late in life  Schaie came up w/primary source of data on adult intelligence o Theoretical perspectives on aging:  Most operate from assumption taht there are two main categories of mental abilities corresponding roughly to verbal and nonverbal intelligence  The concept of “G”: • Existence of a “general factor” of intelligence (g) which encompasses ability to infer and apply rlnshps on basis of experience o So indivs w/high levels of g should be able to score high on various tests taht tap into specific mental abilities o Salthouse identified broad “g-type” factor associated w/age that was also related to age related deficits in speed and memory • Primary mental abilities: G overly simplistic? So proposals of multiple abilities/dimensions of abilities that together comprise intelligence o Thurstone and Primary mental abiliti
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.