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PSYC 357
Dagmar Bernstein

Psyc 357 ch 5 (108-128): Health and Prevention • Diseases of the cardiovascular system: affect heart and arteries o Cardiac and Cerebrovascular conditions:  In normal aging process fat and other substances accumulate in walls of arteries (artherosclerosis) at abnormally high rate to point where they substantially reduce the width of the arteries  Arteriorsclerosis= general term for thickening and hardening of arteries (occurs to some degree in normal aging)  Atherogenesis: refers to stimulation and acceleration of atherosclerosis  Most ppl live w/atherosclerosis and don’t have significant heart problsme but progressive buildup can lead to partial or total blockage of artery which affects organs supplied by them • Coronary Artery disease= when arteries that feed heart muscle affected by atherosclerosis (aka coronary heart disease) • Myocardial infarction= when blod supply to part of heart muscle (myocardium) severely reduced or blocked  Hypertension= disease in which person suffers chronic high BP(greater than 140/90 systolic/diastolic) • Changes in arteries associated w/atherosclerosis thought to be due to damaging effects of hypertension • Increased BP more pressure on arteries and eventually dev areas of weakness and inflammation (esp where pressure greatest) and damage makes arteries more susceptible to plaque o Ppl w/hypertension more likely to develop Hypertrophy (overgrowth) of left heart ventricle b/c it has to work harder to pump blood (more resistance from hardened arteries)  Congestive heart failure: heart unable to pump enough blood to meet needs of body’s other organs (blood flows slower and slower causing blod returning thru heart to back up in veins) • Tissues become congested w/fluid • Can result from coronary artery disease, scar tissue from previous myocardial infarction, hypertension, heart valve or muscle disease or heart defects • Become exhausted and short of breath, Edema (fluid swells in bodies) and fluid buildup in lungs/kidneys may occur  Cerebrovascular disease= circulation disorders of brain • May lead to Cerebrovascular accident (stroke/brain attack) where artery leading to brain bursts or is clogged o Larger area deprived of blood, more damage • Transient ischemic attack (TIA)= ministroke, same cause as other stroke but blockage of artery temporary (tissues will recover but likely another TIA will occur) o Incidence rates: heart disease number one killer in USA and together heart disease and cerebrovascular disease account for 39% deaths in 2003  Variations by sex and race in risk  Behavioural risk factors: • 4 lifestyle choices: o 1-Sedentary lifestyle first major risk factor for heart disease  Well established rlnshp b/w exercise and heart disease o 2- smoking (don’t really know why) may damage arteries and make them more vulnerable to plaques o 3- Body weight= declines in mobility (sedentary) and increased weight puts more strain on lower extremities  High BMI associated w/increased risk of heart disease in middle and later adulthood, ppl w/high BMIs in childhood/young adulthood not necessarily at risk of deceloping cardiovascular disease • Can still engage in preventative behaviours  “stroke belt” b/c of high consumption of sodium, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol and low consumption of dietary fibre  Metabolic syndrome= high levels of abdominal obesity, abnormal levels of blood cholesterol (low good HDL cholesterol and high bad LDL cholesterol), hypertension, insulin resistance, high blood fats, high levels of C reactive proteins in blood and presence of coronary plaques o 4- alcohol intake  Moderate can be protective effect on risk of heart disease but beyond that heavy intake (more than 2 beers/2glasses of wine per day) bad • Negative emotions role in mediating rlnshp b/w social class and health- low SES more likely negative emotions/perceptions of world (more stress, more vulnerable to negative health outcomes) o Prevention of heart disease and stroke:  Drugs called Statins (lower levels of harmful cholesterol) in combo w/good diet can significantly reduce risk of heart dieseas • Also good to eat more fruits and veggies (Mediterranean diet) • Need exercise • Cancer: o More than 100 different diseases, each type w/own symptoms/characteristics/tx/overall effects on ppl’s lives/health  Lifetime risk of ½ for men and 1/3 for women, most commonly lung cancer causing deaths for cancer o Risk factors and prevention:  All is genetically caused and reflects damage to genes that ctrl cell replication • Some damage associated linked w/interited tendency (ie 5% breast cancer) • Some random mutations, some in response to injuries from environmental agnts such as radiation or chemicals • Most cancers become more prevalent w/increasing age b/c age associated w/greater cumulative exposure to environment  Lifestyle factors (3): exposure to sun, cigatette smoking, and lack of ctrl over diet • Skin cancer most common and directly linked to UV radiation from sun • Cigarette smoking next worst esp bad b/c linked to lung cancer (most deadly) o Can also be linked to causing cancer of mouth, throat, esphagus, larynx, bladder, kidney, cervix, pancreas and stomach o Risk for lung cancer diminishes as soon as you stop smoking, second hand smoke also bad • Diet third risk facto- higher BMIs associated w/cancer of esophagus, colon and recturm, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and kidney, prostate, breast, uterus, cervix and ovaries o Stomach cancer more common w/more smoked, pickled or salted foods  So fresh foods great  High fat, low fruit/veggie, low fiber= higher risk of colon cancer  Environmental toxins ie pesticides, electromagnetic fields, engine exhausts and water/food contaminants poss role in breast cancer • Carcinogens in workplace (Asbestos and radon) also increase risk of lung cancer • Exposure to cadmium increase risk of prostate cancer • Fumes/dust from urban work environemtn increase risk of stomach and colorectal cancer  Lifestyle and history of disease w/effects, also variations due to race and ethnicity for some types of cancers • Fair skin (who freckle easily) more likely to develop skin cancer, Black ppl rarely o Uterine cancer more in whites, prostate cancer more in blacks o Stomach cancer twice as much in men and more in black ppl, as is colon cancner o Rectal cancer more prevalent in whites  Hormones role in risk of some cancers- growth of cancer cells in prostate is stimulated by male hormones • Estrogen thought to increase F risk of uterine cancer- may be link b/w weight and uterine cancer (more fat, more estrogen) o Treatments: best way to tx cancer is to prevent it (frequent screenings)  Osteoporosis in many ppl, mostly women (at higher riks b/c lower bone mass in general and Menopause decreases estrogen production and thus increases bone loss process) • White and asian women w/highest risk and blacks/Hispanics w/lowest risk • Women w/small bones structures and underweight w/greater risk than heavy women • Alcohol and cigarette smoking increase risk of developing osteoporosis • Cancounter by adequate intake of calcium (dairy, dark leafy veggies, tofu, salmon, fortified products) vitamin D (for calcium absorption) • Prevention and tx involve attempting to restore bone strength thru nutritional supplements and regular program of weight bearing exercise o Medication too (ie Alendronate a biphosophonate to increase bone density and calcitonin naturally occurring horming in regulation of Ca and bone metabolism • Diabetes: o Characteristics of diabetes:  Diabetes= defect in process of metabolizing glucose (simple sugar needed for body’s cells) • Normally digestive process breaks food into components that can be transported thru blood to cells, presence of glucose in blood triggers beta cells in pancreas to release insulin (open cell doors to let glucose in) • Excess glucose stored in liver and throughout boddle in muscle and fat o After disposed of (taken to cells) blood level returns to normal • Type 2 diabetes= pancreas produces some insulin but body’s tissues fail to respond to insulin signal (insulin resistance) o b/c insulin can’t bind to cell’s insulin receptor , glucose can’t get into cell so eventually excess glucose into urine (body loses main source of energy) o symptoms= fatigue, frequent urination, unusual thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections, slow healing of sores  dev gradually and less noticeable in type 2 (vs type 1)  if blood sugar too low (hypoglycaemia) indiv becomes nervous, jittery, faint and confused • must eat/drink something w/sugar (but if levels rise too quickly can get very ill) • Type 1 (child onset) diabetes o Incidence and risk factors: many ppl undiagnosed, doubles risk of death  Main risk factors are obesity and sedentary lifestyle (rise in BMI) • Also race and ethnicity- more in Blacks than Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans vs Whites o Highest in Native Americans o Prevention and Tx: prevent type 2 by controlling glucose intake, controlling BP and control blood lipids, also moderate consumption of alcohol  Once have Type 2 diabetes, diet and exercise important  Frequent blood testing to monitor glucose levels • Respiratory diseases: o Main form in middle/late life is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD)  Group of diseases that involve obstruction of the airflow into respiratory system • Chronic bronchitis and chronic emphysema often occur together • Coughing, excess sputum, difficulty breathing even during easy tasks o F>M for prevalence’  Chronic bronchitis= long standing inflammation of bronchi (airways that lead into lungs) • Inflammation leads to increased production of mucus which can lead to coughing and expectoration of sputum o More likely to develop frequent and severe respiratory infections,
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