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Psyc 357 ch1.doc

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PSYC 357
Dagmar Bernstein

Psyc 357 ch1- Themes and issues in adult dev and aging • Adult= all indivs who have reached a certain level of physical, psychological and social maturity • The biopsychosocial perspective= a view of dev as a complex interaction of biological, psychosocial and social processes o Biology= function and structures of body changing over time o Psychological processes involve cognition, personality and meotions o Social processes reflect environment or context and include indicators that reflect the indiv’s position w/in social structure o Model implies that there’s many things that provide crucial perspectives to adulthood and aging psychology o Identity= composite of self representations in biologica, psychological and social domains  Interaction of domains as interpreted in terms of indiv’s view of self forms central organizing concept w/in biopsychosocial persp • Principles of adult dev and aging= o 1= changes over the lifespan are continuous (build on previous changes)  Ppl often look at external changes first, whereas you don’t feel you change much on the inside (still the same person) but you change immensely on the outside o 2= In order for ppl to become old, they have to not die (survive)  5 ways to shorten your life= being overweight, drinking and driving, eating inadequate fruits and veggies, being physically inactive, smoking  Some ppl who survive longer do have certain characteristics that allow them to do so o 3= as ppl grow older, they become more different from each other (not more alike as we sometimes think)  Physical functioning, psychological performance, living conditions  Interindividual differences= principle that ppl become more dif from each other w/age • Ppl of same age may differ so much that they more closely resemble ppl from dif age groups entirely (even on measures thought to decline w/age)  Intra-individual differences= aka multidirectionality of development where not all systems develop at same rate w/in one person (some functions may show positive changes and some show negative changes over time) • Sometimes better skills/abilities at older age than younger (must remain active in domain) o 4=“normal” aging is different from disease-> differentiate b/w normal, impaired and optimal aging  Impaired aging= existence of changes that result from diseases and don’t occur in all ppl  Optimal aging aka Successful aging= avoided changes that would otherwise occur w/age thru preventative and conservatory measures  Normal aging aka Primary aging= age related changes that are universal, intrinsic and progressive • Vs Secondary aging= changes that are due to disease • Be careful to attribute older ppl health probs to just “getting older” • The meaning of age= o Chronological age= usually difference b/w date of birth and present date (in years)  But this type of age says nothing in regard to status of body’s functioning o Using age to define “adult”= term “adult” very difficult to define (synonymous w/mature but this also hard to quantify)  Random thresholds for driving, drinking, consent, voting, etc.. to count as “adulthood” o Divisions by age of the over-65 population= traditionally is “old age” but they face very dif life challenges than ppl over 85  65-74= young old, 75-84= old old, 85+ oldest old  Centenarians= ppl over 100, SUpercentenarians= ppl over 110 o Alternative indices of age- instead of chronological age look at specific aspects of functioning so when indiv may have more than one “age” based on dif levels of performance  Biological age= quality of organ system functioning  Psychological age= quality of indiv’s functioning on psycholigcal measures such as intelligence, memory and learning ability  Social age= characterization based on person’s age based on occupying certain social roles (family, work, community)  Advantage of alternative indices is can characterize indiv more accurately than chronological system BUT they require frequent upgrading to make sure they’re still accurate o Personal vs Social aging=  Pseronal aging= changes within the indiv (ontogenetic changes)  Social aging= changes in societies over time responsible for this process, ppl change along w/or as a result of historical change (ie improvements in health care and education over lifetime) • “normative”= implies that the inference is one that occurs as the “norm” (change expected to happen so “normative changes” happen to most ppl in that social group)
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