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Chapter 4

PSYC 357 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Pattern Hair Loss, Bone Density, Subcutaneous Tissue

15 pages99 viewsSpring 2011

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 357
Professor
Dagmar Bernstein
Chapter
4

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Psych 357 ch4 (Physical and sensory changes in adulthood and old age)
According to biopsychosocial model changes in physical functioning interact w/psychological
processes and social context
oChanges that occur in our bodies reflect social factors such as class, race, gender (these
factors also affect how we interpret physical changes)
Appearance: outward appearance first cue for guessing someone’s age
oFace, hands, hair, teeth all cues
oSkin: wrinkling and sagging skin start in 20s and 30s, number and depth of wrinkles
increase, skin loses resilience and becomes more translucent so can see veins and
bones
Epidermis (outer layer), dermis (middle), subcutaneous fat inner layer
w/increasing age cells in epidermis lose regularity and become more
disorganized in arrangement
most significant change is dermis (composed of collagen- protein that
supports skin cells, elastin that helps w/elasticity)
oskin doesn’t return to unstretched state quite as well anymore,
sebaceous glands (lubricate skin w/oils) become less active so
skin drier and more vulnerable to chafing
subcutaneous fat thins in middle adulthood (goes to fatty deposits in your
torso)
age spots (Lentigo senilis)= areas of brown pigmentation on sun
exposed areas, pigmented outgrowths develop (moles) and elevate small
blood vessels (angiomas)
ocapillaries and arteries may become dilated and in general are
more visible b/c loss of subcutaneous fat
ovaricose veins=large irregularities in blood vessels
nail growth slows, becomes yellowed (esp toenails)
face shape changes, bone loss in skull (particularly jaw), teeth discoloured, tooth
loss (less problematic now with better dental care)
tooth loss related to lower education level
eyes: needing glasses, areas around eyes baggy b/c of accumulation of fat, fluid
and dark pigmentation
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less likely to blush/show skin sensitivity
genetic background affects rate of aging, fair skinned ppl age more rapidly
Photoaging= age changes caused by exposure to sun’s harmful radiation
oStay out of sun, don’t smoke
Best= moisturizer on daily basis to counteract fragility, sensitivity and dryness
Use of Alpha-hydroxy acid agents as addition to basic moisturizer can
stimulate cell growth and renewal to offset sun damage
Vitamin A (retinol) antiwrinkle agent b/c helps preserve collagen matrix
(tho is unstable chemical compound so unpleasant side effects such as
redness)
Botox also popular (nerve poison and paralyzes muscle and relaxes
skin/temporarily reduces wrinkle)
Or facelifts (surgical)
Artificial fillers, laser resurfacing tx, microdermabrasion
oHair= grey hair b/c loss of pigmentation in hairs as production of melanin ceases
Thinning of hair more in men but does happen to women too
Results from destruction of germination centers that produe the hair in hir
follicles
oMost common form of hair loss is male pattern hair loss and
female pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia)
95% adult men and 20% women
In this form hair follicles stop producing the long, thick,
pigmented hairs kown as terminal hair and instead
produce short, fine unpigmented hair and largely
invisible hair known as Vellus hair
Stops on head, starts on chin (women) ears and
eyebrows
Body build:
oWe get shorter as we age (b/c of loss of bone material in vertebrae that leads the spine to
collapse and shorten
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oFat-free mass (FFM)= index amount of lean tissue in body and Body mass index (BMI)=
index of body fat that =weight (kg) divided by height (in meters) squared
Ideal bmi= 23 in men and 21 in women
Total body weight increases from 20s to mid 50s then declines, most weight gain
thru middle adulthood increase in bmi (fat around weight and hips, Middle aged
spread)
Anorexia of aging= loss of FFM b/c of inadequate food intake (happens b/c of
hormonal changes in hunger regulation)
Regular aerobic activity to maintain muscle tone and reduce fat deposits, 15-90
minutes a day of activity
Resistance training in particular can help offset age losses in bone
content
oVigorous walking, jogging, or cycling for 30-60 minute a day, 3-4
days a week
Important to exercise and feel good about self/body even when you’re
older
Mobility:
oAll of bones, joints, tendons, ligaments undergo age related changes
oMuscles: Sarcopenia (progressive loss of muscle mass)
Reduction in number and size of muscle fibers (esp fast twitch ones for
speed/strength)
As muscle mass decreases is first replaced by connective tissue, then by fat (1-
2% per year of loss)
Gender variations, men more pronounced loss, black women lose muscle at
lower rate
Rates (at least for women) can be reduced by exercise 3+ times a week
Muscle strength peaks in 20s/30s and plateaus until 40s/50s then declines at
faster rate of 12-15% per decade
Muscular endurance however is generally maintained thru adulthood
Also relatively minor effects on eccentric strength (lowering arm wweights,
slowing down while walking and going down stairs)
Eccentric strength preserved thru 70s and 80s in men and women
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